Taxonomic structure and notes

Displayed items:  
Order Struthioniformes
Family Struthionidae (Ostriches)Family species listFamily plate
Genus StruthioSpecies listFamily plate   Linnaeus, 1758
Family Rheidae (Rheas)Family species listFamily plate
Genus RheaSpecies listFamily plate   Brisson, 1760
Family Tinamidae (Tinamous)Family species listFamily plate

Several recent studies place this family within Struthioniformes, with rheas as closest relatives#R#R#R#R. Sequence of genera modified in line with recent morphological and molecular analyses, which show Tinamus and Crypturellus to be sister groups, with Nothocercus basal to all other tinamous#R#R#R.

Genus NothocercusSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1856
Genus TinamusSpecies listFamily plate   Hermann, 1783
Genus CrypturellusSpecies listFamily plate   Brabourne & C. Chubb, 1914
Genus RhynchotusSpecies listFamily plate   Spix, 1825
Genus NothoproctaSpecies listFamily plate   P. L. Sclater & Salvin, 1873
Genus NothuraSpecies listFamily plate   Wagler, 1827
Genus TaoniscusSpecies listFamily plate   Gloger, 1842
Genus EudromiaSpecies listFamily plate   I. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1832
Genus TinamotisSpecies listFamily plate   Vigors, 1837
Family Casuariidae (Cassowaries, Emus)Family species listFamily plate
Subfamily Casuariinae
Genus CasuariusSpecies listFamily plate   Brisson, 1760
Subfamily Dromaiinae
Genus DromaiusSpecies listFamily plate   Vieillot, 1816
Family Apterygidae (Kiwis)Family species listFamily plate
Genus ApteryxSpecies listFamily plate   Shaw, 1813
Order Galliformes
Family Megapodiidae (Megapodes)Family species listFamily plate
Genus AlecturaSpecies listFamily plate   Latham, 1824
Genus AepypodiusSpecies listFamily plate   Oustalet, 1880
Genus TalegallaSpecies listFamily plate   Lesson, 1828

Sometimes misspelt Talegallus.

Genus LeipoaSpecies listFamily plate   Gould, 1840
Genus MacrocephalonSpecies listFamily plate   S. Müller, 1846

Recent phylogenetic study suggests that genus is sister to a clade containing Eulipoa and Megapodius#R; earlier genetic study instead found that it belongs to a clade containing mound-building Alectura, Aepypodius, Talegalla and Leipoa#R. Alternatively used genus name, Megacephalon, is a nomen nudum#R.

Genus EulipoaSpecies listFamily plate   Ogilvie-Grant, 1893
Genus MegapodiusSpecies listFamily plate   Gaimard, 1823
Family Cracidae (Guans, Chachalacas, Curassows)Family species listFamily plate
Subfamily Penelopinae
Genus ChamaepetesSpecies listFamily plate   Wagler, 1832
Genus PenelopinaSpecies listFamily plate   Reichenbach, 1862
Genus PenelopeSpecies listFamily plate   Merrem, 1786
Genus PipileSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1856

Recent genetic studies#R#R#R suggest that this genus should be lumped with Aburria, a treatment supported by some morphological data. On the other hand, some clear morphological and, especially, vocal differences exist between the two, and it seems more appropriate to retain them as separate genera, pending further investigation#R. In the past, all members of Pipile were even included in Penelope.

Genus AburriaSpecies listFamily plate   Reichenbach, 1853

Some recent studies suggest that Pipile should perhaps be subsumed within this genus (see above).

Subfamily Oreophasinae
Genus OreophasisSpecies listFamily plate   G. R. Gray, 1844
Subfamily Ortalisinae

Subfamily name formed as above in order to avoid homonymy with nomenclature used in Diptera; initial spelling, Ortalidainae, is erroneous and must be emended as above#R#R.

Genus OrtalisSpecies listFamily plate   Merrem, 1786
Subfamily Cracinae
Genus NothocraxSpecies listFamily plate   Burmeister, 1856
Genus CraxSpecies listFamily plate   Linnaeus, 1758

Genetic data support this genus as representing a monophyletic group#R. Members considered to form a superspecies#R.

Genus MituSpecies listFamily plate   Lesson, 1831

Generic limits in the curassows are controversial. Some authors have subsumed Mitu, Pauxi and even Nothocrax within Crax. Others have given reasons for maintaining the four genera separate, and pointed out also that Nothocrax was a strong outlier in the group, a prediction subsequently verified by genetic data (revealing that Pauxi, Mitu and Nothocrax share the same clade and are sister to Crax#R); most authors since 1970s have followed this second course. Recent osteological data, however, provide evidence for subsuming Mitu into Pauxi#R, and another recent study produced morphological and genetic data to support this merger#R. Further investigation needed#R. The four members of genus Mitu are all closely related.

Genus PauxiSpecies listFamily plate   Temminck, 1813

Generic limits in the curassows are controversial (see Mitu).

Family Numididae (Guineafowl)Family species listFamily plate
Genus NumidaSpecies listFamily plate   Linnaeus, 1764#R#R
Genus AgelastesSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1850
Genus AcrylliumSpecies listFamily plate   G. R. Gray, 1840
Genus GutteraSpecies listFamily plate   Wagler, 1832
Family Odontophoridae (New World Quails)Family species listFamily plate
Subfamily Ptilopachinae

Contains two African species reckoned to have diverged from the New World quails c. 37.4 million years ago in the Oligocene, and from each other c. 9.6 million years ago#R. Given the considerable time since Ptilopachus diverged from remaining members of Odontophoridae (Philortyx, Oreortyx, Colinus, Callipepla, Dendrortyx, Odontophorus, Rhynchortyx, Dactylortyx and Cyrtonyx), as well as clear disjunction of Old World taxa from New World taxa, this new subfamily recently erected to encompass Ptilopachus#R.

Genus PtilopachusSpecies listFamily plate   Swainson, 1837

Recent genetic investigations indicate that this genus, previously included with the Old World members of Phasianidae, is close to the New World Odontophoridae#R#R#R.

Subfamily Odontophorinae
Genus PhilortyxSpecies listFamily plate   Gould, 1846
Genus OreortyxSpecies listFamily plate   S. F. Baird, 1858

Sometimes subsumed within Callipepla#R.

Genus ColinusSpecies listFamily plate   Goldfuss, 1820
Genus CallipeplaSpecies listFamily plate   Wagler, 1832

This genus incorporates Lophortyx Bonaparte, 1838.

Genus DendrortyxSpecies listFamily plate   Gould, 1844
Genus OdontophorusSpecies listFamily plate   Vieillot, 1816
Genus RhynchortyxSpecies listFamily plate   Ogilvie-Grant, 1893
Genus DactylortyxSpecies listFamily plate   Ogilvie-Grant, 1893
Genus CyrtonyxSpecies listFamily plate   Gould, 1844
Family Phasianidae (Pheasants, Partridges, Turkeys, Grouse)Family species listFamily plate

Includes, in Tetraonini, all taxa that have commonly been separated in families Meleagrididae and Tetraonidae.

Subfamily Rollulinae
Genus XenoperdixSpecies listFamily plate   Dinesen et al., 1994
Genus RollulusSpecies listFamily plate   Bonnaterre, 1791
Genus ArborophilaSpecies listFamily plate   Hodgson, 1837
Genus RhizotheraSpecies listFamily plate   G. R. Gray, 1841
Genus MelanoperdixSpecies listFamily plate   Jerdon, 1864
Genus HaematortyxSpecies listFamily plate   Sharpe, 1879

Recent study found weak relationship between this genus and Polyplectron#R.

Genus CaloperdixSpecies listFamily plate   Blyth, 1861
Genus GalloperdixSpecies listFamily plate   Blyth, 1845

Genus considered incertae sedis#R. Included here tentatively, as a possible link between Rollulinae and Phasianinae, pending the required genetic study.

Subfamily Phasianinae
Tribe Pavonini
Genus AfropavoSpecies listFamily plate   Chapin, 1936

Recent molecular research suggests that Afropavo forms a weakly supported clade with Pavo, Argusianus, Rheinardia and Polyplectron#R.

Genus PavoSpecies listFamily plate   Linnaeus, 1758

Recent molecular research suggests that Pavo forms a weakly supported clade with Afropavo, Argusianus, Rheinardia and Polyplectron#R.

Genus ArgusianusSpecies listFamily plate   G. R. Gray, 1849

Recent molecular research suggests that Argusianus forms a weakly supported clade with Afropavo, Pavo, Rheinardia and Polyplectron#R. Citation of genus name replaces previous version “Argusianus Rafinesque, 1815”, which is a nomen nudum, as it was not associated with any particular taxon#R.

Genus RheinardiaSpecies listFamily plate   Maingounat, 1882

Recent molecular research suggests that Rheinardia forms a weakly supported clade with Afropavo, Pavo, Argusianus and Polyplectron#R. Genus name has frequently been misspelt Rheinartia, and in the past even as Rheinhardius, Rheinardius, Rheinartius or Rheinhardtius, among others#R.

Tribe Polyplectronini
Genus PolyplectronSpecies listFamily plate   Temminck, 1807#R

Recent molecular research suggests that Polyplectron forms a weakly supported clade with Afropavo, Pavo, Argusianus and Rheinardia#R.

Tribe Coturnicini
Genus MargaroperdixSpecies listFamily plate   Reichenbach, 1853
Genus CoturnixSpecies listFamily plate   Bonnaterre, 1791

Broad molecular (mtDNA) study of Asian Phasianidae found that genera Coturnix, Gallus and Bambusicola form a subclade within a clade of pheasants, to the exclusion of the two partridge genera Alectoris and Perdix#R, although other studies have not supported this finding.

Genus SynoicusSpecies listFamily plate   Gould, 1843
Genus AnurophasisSpecies listFamily plate   van Oort, 1910
Genus TetraogallusSpecies listFamily plate   J. E. Gray, 1832
Genus AlectorisSpecies listFamily plate   Kaup, 1829

Broad molecular (mtDNA) study of Asian Phasianidae found that genera Alectoris and Perdix form a monophyletic grouping to the exclusion of all pheasants and such genera as Bambusicola and Coturnix#R. In a phylogenetic study of Alectoris#R, analyses of mtDNA sequences supported the existence of three main evolutionary events and accorded with relationships reconstructed on the basis of allozyme data. The first event separated N African A. barbara and Arabian A. melanocephala from the other Alectoris; following this, W taxa A. graeca and A. rufa separated from E species; recent speciation events gave rise to A. chukar, A. magna, and A. philbyi.

Genus LerwaSpecies listFamily plate   Hodgson, 1837
Genus AmmoperdixSpecies listFamily plate   Gould, 1851
Genus PerdiculaSpecies listFamily plate   Hodgson, 1837
Genus OphrysiaSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1856
Genus PternistisSpecies listFamily plate   Wagler, 1832

Formerly treated as a subgenus within a broad genus Francolinus, but latter as then constituted was found to be polyphyletic#R#R. Francolinus has therefore been restricted to the five Asiatic species; the African species are now generally divided among Pternistis, Peliperdix and Scleroptila (see below)#R.

Tribe Gallini
Genus FrancolinusSpecies listFamily plate   Stephens, 1819

Formerly treated as a much broader genus, including Pternistis and others, but when thus constituted was found to be polyphyletic#R#R. It has therefore been restricted to the five related Asiatic species; the African species are now mainly divided among Pternistis (see above), Peliperdix and Scleroptila (see below)#R.

Genus DendroperdixSpecies listFamily plate   Roberts, 1922

Formerly treated as a subgenus within a greatly expanded Francolinus, but latter genus, when thus constituted, was found to be polyphyletic#R#R.

Genus PeliperdixSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1856

Formerly treated as a subgenus within a greatly expanded Francolinus, but latter genus, when thus constituted, was found to be polyphyletic#R#R. Francolinus has therefore been restricted to the five Asiatic species; the African species are now generally divided among Pternistis (see above), Peliperdix and Scleroptila (below)#R.

Genus ScleroptilaSpecies listFamily plate   Blyth, 1852

Formerly treated as a subgenus within a greatly expanded Francolinus, but latter genus, when thus constituted, was found to be polyphyletic#R#R. Francolinus has therefore been restricted to the five Asiatic species; the African species are now generally divided among Pternistis and Peliperdix (see above) and Scleroptila#R.

Genus BambusicolaSpecies listFamily plate   Gould, 1863

Broad molecular (mtDNA) study of Asian Phasianidae found that genera Coturnix, Gallus and Bambusicola form a subclade within a clade of pheasants, to the exclusion of two partridge genera (Alectoris, Perdix)#R.

Genus GallusSpecies listFamily plate   Brisson, 1760

Broad molecular (mtDNA) study of Asian Phasianidae found that genera Coturnix, Gallus and Bambusicola form a subclade within a clade of pheasants, to the exclusion of two partridge genera (Alectoris, Perdix)#R, although other studies have not supported this finding.

Tribe Lophophorini
Genus TetraophasisSpecies listFamily plate   Elliot, 1871

Broad molecular study of Phasianidae found that genera Tetraophasis, Lophophorus, Tragopan and Ithaginis form one of two major subclades, within which present genus is most closely related to Lophophorus#R. Recent molecular study found a sister relationship between Lophophorus and Tetraophasis#R, hence placement of Tetraophasis in tribe Lophophorini.

Genus LophophorusSpecies listFamily plate   Temminck, 1813

Broad molecular study of Phasianidae found that genera Tetraophasis, Lophophorus, Tragopan and Ithaginis form one of two major subclades, within which present genus is most closely related to Tetraophasis#R. Recent molecular study found a sister relationship between Lophophorus and Tetraophasis#R.

Genus TragopanSpecies listFamily plate   Cuvier, 1829

Broad molecular study of Phasianidae found that genera Tetraophasis, Lophophorus, Tragopan and Ithaginis form one of two major subclades, within which present genus is most closely related to Ithaginis#R.

Genus IthaginisSpecies listFamily plate   Wagler, 1832

Genus sometimes considered incertae sedis. Broad molecular study of Phasianidae, however, found that genera Tetraophasis, Lophophorus, Tragopan and Ithaginis form one of two major subclades, within which present genus is most closely related to Tragopan#R.

Genus PucrasiaSpecies listFamily plate   G. R. Gray, 1841

Genus previously considered incertae sedis. Broad molecular study of Phasianidae, however, found that Pucrasia forms a well-supported subclade which also comprises Syrmaticus, Chrysolophus, Phasianus and Lophura#R.

Tribe Phasianini
Genus SyrmaticusSpecies listFamily plate   Wagler, 1832

Recent broad molecular (mtDNA) study of Phasianidae found no evidence that Syrmaticus is polyphyletic; instead, the genus is part of a well-supported subclade that also contains Pucrasia, Chrysolophus, Phasianus and Lophura#R.

Genus ChrysolophusSpecies listFamily plate   J. E. Gray, 1834

In recent broad molecular (mtDNA) study of Phasianidae, this genus found to be part of a well-supported subclade that also contains Pucrasia, Syrmaticus, Phasianus and Lophura#R.

Genus PhasianusSpecies listFamily plate   Linnaeus, 1758

In recent broad molecular (mtDNA) study of Phasianidae, this genus found to be part of a well-supported subclade that also contains Pucrasia, Syrmaticus, Chrysolophus and Lophura#R.

Genus CrossoptilonSpecies listFamily plate   Hodgson, 1838

Broad molecular study of Phasianidae found that Crossoptilon forms, together with Lophura, one branch of a subclade that also comprises Pucrasia, Syrmaticus, Chrysolophus and Phasianus#R.

Genus CatreusSpecies listFamily plate   Cabanis, 1851

In a genetic study (cytochrome b) of relationships of Syrmaticus to Phasianus, Catreus and Lophura, it was found that Phasianus versicolor, Catreus wallichii and Lophura erythrophthalma formed a cluster. Catreus was considered more closely related to Phasianus than to Syrmaticus#R.

Genus LophuraSpecies listFamily plate   J. Fleming, 1822

Broad molecular study of Phasianidae found that Lophura forms, together with Crossoptilon, one branch of a subclade that also comprises Pucrasia, Syrmaticus, Chrysolophus and Phasianus#R.

Tribe Tetraonini

Includes all taxa that have commonly been separated in families Meleagrididae and Tetraonidae.

Genus PerdixSpecies listFamily plate   Brisson, 1760

Position of genus uncertain. Recent genetic studies give contradicting results. One broad molecular (mtDNA) study of Asian Phasianidae found that the genera Alectoris and Perdix form a monophyletic grouping to the exclusion of all pheasants and such genera as Bambusicola and Coturnix#R. Another analysis found Perdix to be related either to typical pheasants (Phasianini) or to Ithaginis#R. Yet another study, however, places Perdix as sister to Meleagris in Tetraonini#R.

Genus MeleagrisSpecies listFamily plate   Linnaeus, 1758

Position of genus uncertain; in past, often awarded its own family, Meleagrididae. Recent phylogenetic study places Meleagris as sister to Perdix in Tetraonini#R.

Genus BonasaSpecies listFamily plate   Stephens, 1819

Genetic analyses show that Bonasa is monophyletic and is basal to all grouse of the traditionally recognized family Tetraonidae (below, species 168–187)#R#R.

Genus LagopusSpecies listFamily plate   Brisson, 1760
Genus DendragapusSpecies listFamily plate   Elliot, 1864
Genus FalcipennisSpecies listFamily plate   Elliot, 1864

Often included in Dendragapus, but a molecular analysis validates generic separation of Falcipennis#R.

Genus TetraoSpecies listFamily plate   Linnaeus, 1758
Genus LyrurusSpecies listFamily plate   Swainson, 1832

This genus is sometimes subsumed within Tetrao, and the two appear to be very close, to the extent that they are sister-taxa#R#R; however, given the striking homogeneity of each species-pair, generic separation seems appropriate#R.

Genus CentrocercusSpecies listFamily plate   Swainson, 1832
Genus TympanuchusSpecies listFamily plate   Gloger, 1842

One genetic study found that this genus forms a single well-differentiated clade#R, but subsequent molecular work suggested that it is closely related to Dendragapus obscurus#R and, more recently, that it comprises together with Dendragapus and Centrocercus an exclusively North American clade#R.

Order Anseriformes
Family Anhimidae (Screamers)Family species listFamily plate
Genus AnhimaSpecies listFamily plate   Brisson, 1760
Genus ChaunaSpecies listFamily plate   Illiger, 1811
Family Anseranatidae (Magpie Goose)Family species listFamily plate

Results of genetic studies undertaken on Anseranas support the placement of the species within the order Anseriformes, but outside the family Anatidae#R#R#R.

Genus AnseranasSpecies listFamily plate   Lesson, 1828
Family Anatidae (Ducks, Geese, Swans)Family species listFamily plate
Subfamily Dendrocygninae
Genus DendrocygnaSpecies listFamily plate   Swainson, 1837
Genus ThalassornisSpecies listFamily plate   Eyton, 1838
Subfamily Oxyurinae
Genus HeteronettaSpecies listFamily plate   Salvadori, 1865
Genus NomonyxSpecies listFamily plate   Ridgway, 1880

Genus resurrected on basis chiefly of phylogenetic and ecological study which showed Nomonyx to be sister to Oxyura#R.

Genus OxyuraSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1828
Genus BiziuraSpecies listFamily plate   Stephens, 1824

Systematic position of this genus uncertain. Some studies suggest that it is not close to Oxyura, but represents an independent lineage of its own#R. It is retained here in its traditional position, pending further information.

Subfamily Anserinae
Tribe Malacorhynchini
Genus MalacorhynchusSpecies listFamily plate   Swainson, 1831
Tribe Stictonettini

Systematic position uncertain. Has been placed between genera Coscoroba and Cygnus, but these two now appear to be sisters. Pending further information, Stictonetta here retained in its more or less traditional position.

Genus StictonettaSpecies listFamily plate   Reichenbach, 1853
Tribe Cereopseini
Genus CereopsisSpecies listFamily plate   Latham, 1801
Genus CoscorobaSpecies listFamily plate   Reichenbach, 1853

Phylogenetic analyses indicate the branching of this genus prior to the divergence of geese and swans, and suggest a possible sister-group relationship between Coscoroba and Cygnus#R.

Tribe Cygnini
Genus CygnusSpecies listFamily plate   Bechstein, 1803
Tribe Anserini
Genus BrantaSpecies listFamily plate   Scopoli, 1769
Genus AnserSpecies listFamily plate   Brisson, 1760
Subfamily Anatinae
Tribe Mergini
Genus ClangulaSpecies listFamily plate   Leach, 1819
Genus SomateriaSpecies listFamily plate   Leach, 1819
Genus PolystictaSpecies listFamily plate   Eyton, 1836
Genus MelanittaSpecies listFamily plate   Boie, 1822
Genus BucephalaSpecies listFamily plate   S. F. Baird, 1858
Genus MergellusSpecies listFamily plate   Selby, 1840
Genus LophodytesSpecies listFamily plate   Reichenbach, 1853
Genus MergusSpecies listFamily plate   Linnaeus, 1758
Genus HistrionicusSpecies listFamily plate   Lesson, 1828
Tribe Tadornini
Genus NeochenSpecies listFamily plate   Oberholser, 1918
Genus ChloephagaSpecies listFamily plate   Eyton, 1838
Genus RadjahSpecies listFamily plate   Reichenbach, 1853
Genus AlopochenSpecies listFamily plate   Stejneger, 1885
Genus TadornaSpecies listFamily plate   Boie, 1822
Tribe Cairinini
Genus PlectropterusSpecies listFamily plate   Stephens, 1824
Genus CairinaSpecies listFamily plate   J. Fleming, 1822
Genus SarkidiornisSpecies listFamily plate   Eyton, 1838

Sometimes isolated in its own tribe (Sarkidiornini).

Genus NettapusSpecies listFamily plate   J. F. Brandt, 1836
Genus CallonettaSpecies listFamily plate   Delacour, 1936
Genus AixSpecies listFamily plate   Boie, 1828

Sometimes considered incertae sedis; one recent phylogenetic study found it to be sister to Cairina#R.

Genus ChenonettaSpecies listFamily plate   J. F. Brandt, 1836
Tribe Hymenolaimini

Genus Hymenolaimus has been considered variously an aberrant Anas and an ancient taxon in tribe Anatini, and has been placed in a highly derived clade Merganettini (then including the shelducks). A recent phylogenetic study, however, found that Hymenolaimus forms a monophyletic clade, not fitting within any of the other duck tribes#R.

Genus HymenolaimusSpecies listFamily plate   G. R. Gray, 1843
Tribe Merganettini
Genus MerganettaSpecies listFamily plate   Gould, 1842
Tribe Aythyini
Genus PteronettaSpecies listFamily plate   Salvadori, 1895
Genus CyanochenSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1856
Genus MarmaronettaSpecies listFamily plate   Reichenbach, 1853
Genus AsarcornisSpecies listFamily plate   Salvadori, 1895

In recent phylogenetic analysis, this genus found to be close to Netta and Aythya#R.

Genus NettaSpecies listFamily plate   Kaup, 1829
Genus AythyaSpecies listFamily plate   Boie, 1822
Genus RhodonessaSpecies listFamily plate   Reichenbach, 1853
Tribe Anatini
Genus SalvadorinaSpecies listFamily plate   Rothschild & E. J. O. Hartert, 1894

Considered incertae sedis by many. Traditionally placed here in Anatini, but further research needed.

Genus TachyeresSpecies listFamily plate   Owen, 1875

Recent study found this genus to form a monophyletic clade, distinct from Lophonetta, Speculanas and Amazonetta#R.

Genus LophonettaSpecies listFamily plate   Riley, 1914

Separation from genus Anas appears to be warranted#R. In recent phylogenetic study, this genus found to be monophyletic but relationships unclear#R.

Genus SpeculanasSpecies listFamily plate   Boetticher, 1929

Separation from genus Anas appears to be warranted#R. In recent phylogenetic study, this genus and Amazonetta were supported as sister-groups in all analyses#R.

Genus AmazonettaSpecies listFamily plate   Boetticher, 1929

Separation from genus Anas appears to be warranted#R#R. In recent phylogenetic study, this genus and Speculanas were supported as sister-groups in all analyses#R.

Genus SpatulaSpecies listFamily plate   Boie, 1822

Recognition of this genus supported by genetic findings#R.

Genus SibirionettaSpecies listFamily plate   Boetticher, 1929

Separation of this genus from Anas supported by genetic study#R.

Genus MarecaSpecies listFamily plate   Stephens, 1824

A mtDNA study corroborated the monophyly of Mareca, but placed this clade among other dabbling ducks, thereby possibly making Anas paraphyletic#R. More recently, separation of this genus from Anas supported by another genetic study#R.

Genus AnasSpecies listFamily plate   Linnaeus, 1758
Order Podicipediformes
Family Podicipedidae (Grebes)Family species listFamily plate
Genus TachybaptusSpecies listFamily plate   Reichenbach, 1853

Genus occasionally merged into Podiceps.

Genus PodilymbusSpecies listFamily plate   Lesson, 1831
Genus RollandiaSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1856
Genus PoliocephalusSpecies listFamily plate   Selby, 1840
Genus PodicepsSpecies listFamily plate   Latham, 1787
Genus AechmophorusSpecies listFamily plate   Coues, 1862
Order Phoenicopteriformes
Family Phoenicopteridae (Flamingos)Family species listFamily plate
Genus PhoenicopterusSpecies listFamily plate   Linnaeus, 1758
Genus PhoeniconaiasSpecies listFamily plate   G. R. Gray, 1869
Genus PhoenicoparrusSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1856
Order Phaethontiformes
Family Phaethontidae (Tropicbirds)Family species listFamily plate
Genus PhaethonSpecies listFamily plate   Linnaeus, 1758
Order Eurypygiformes
Family Rhynochetidae (Kagu)Family species listFamily plate
Genus RhynochetosSpecies listFamily plate   J. P. Verreaux & Des Murs, 1860
Family Eurypygidae (Sunbittern)Family species listFamily plate
Genus EurypygaSpecies listFamily plate   Illiger, 1811
Order Mesitornithiformes
Family Mesitornithidae (Mesites)Family species listFamily plate
Genus MesitornisSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1855

In past, genus listed as Mesoenas Reichenbach, 1861, a name introduced to replace the preoccupied Mesites I. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1861. Present name is older and now well established in literature, but was not correctly introduced and so requires application to ICZN for formal conservation; Mesitornis meantime retained herein, as in most other works, in order to favour stability#R.

Genus MoniasSpecies listFamily plate   Oustalet & G. Grandidier, 1903
Order Columbiformes
Family Columbidae (Pigeons, Doves)Family species listFamily plate
Subfamily Columbinae
Tribe Columbini
Genus ColumbaSpecies listFamily plate   Linnaeus, 1758

Phylogenetic study of species genera Columba and Streptopelia led to extensive reorganization; all New World species traditionally included within present genus were transferred to a separate genus, Patagioenas#R, a split supported by previously described differences in morphology, serology and behaviour#R.

Genus AplopeliaSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1855

Often merged into Columba but rather distinctive, with strong terrestrial habits.

Genus StreptopeliaSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1855

Phylogenetic study of genera Columba and Streptopelia led to extensive reorganization#R; some species traditionally included within present genus are here transferred to reinstated genera Spilopelia and Nesoenas.

Genus SpilopeliaSpecies listFamily plate   Sundevall, 1873

Genus recently split from Streptopelia on basis of genetic differences#R combined with long-recognized distinctiveness amidst Streptopelia species; sometimes listed as Stigmatopelia#R but Spilopelia, from same publication, was selected by First Revisers#R.

Genus NesoenasSpecies listFamily plate   Salvadori, 1893

Genus as currently constituted sometimes merged “back” into Streptopelia, where may be treated as a subgenus#R; the two species form a distinctive, reasonably well-defined group, with shared similarities in plumage, morphology (e.g. bifurcated neck feathers) and voice#R, and they are genetically related#R, so separate generic treatment appears appropriate#R. Genus is masculine#R.

Genus MacropygiaSpecies listFamily plate   Swainson, 1837
Genus TuracoenaSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1854

Genus generally regarded as being closely related to Macropygia, and indeed sometimes included within it; however, this has been questioned, and similarities in coloration noted with some members of Columba, e.g. C. vitiensis.

Genus ReinwardtoenaSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1854

Genus probably closest to Macropygia, which it resembles in shape and colour pattern of outer rectrices.

Genus PatagioenasSpecies listFamily plate   Reichenbach, 1853

Recently split from Columba on basis of genetic differences#R, supporting previously described differences in morphology, serology and behaviour#R.

Tribe Zenaidini

Internal arrangement reorganized on basis of phylogenetic study#R.

Genus StarnoenasSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1838

Affinities not well known, and in the past placed in its own subfamily due to details of skeleton and tarsal scutellation#R; traditionally considered close to, and herein provisionally placed alongside, Geotrygon, pending genetic studies.

Genus GeotrygonSpecies listFamily plate   Gosse, 1847

In past, present genus was restricted to G. versicolor, the type species, with Osculatia applied to purpurata/saphirina, and all other species of group (herein Leptotrygon, Zentrygon) placed in Oreopeleia#R#R. Subsequently all were normally lumped into Geotrygon#R#R, but recent genetic work has demonstrated that this arrangement is polyphyletic, recommending the arrangement adopted herein#R.

Genus LeptotrygonSpecies listFamily plate   Banks et al., 2013

Previously included within Geotrygon, but genetic evidence backs up long-held belief that this taxon is highly distinct; genetically closest to Leptotila, though similar in aspect and habits to Geotrygon#R.

Genus LeptotilaSpecies listFamily plate   Swainson, 1837
Genus ZentrygonSpecies listFamily plate   Banks et al., 2013

Hitherto included within Geotrygon, and previously in Oreopeleia, but genetic evidence indicates that this group of ground-doves is most closely related to Zenaida, despite marked differences in morphology and behaviour; present genus morphologically inseparable from Geotrygon#R.

Genus ZenaidaSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1838
Subfamily Peristerinae
Genus ColumbinaSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1855
Genus ClaravisSpecies listFamily plate   Oberholser, 1899
Genus MetriopeliaSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1855
Genus UropeliaSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1855
Subfamily Raphinae
Genus HenicophapsSpecies listFamily plate   G. R. Gray, 1862

Distinctive genus perhaps belonging to the large radiation of bronzewings, where may be most closely allied to Chalcophaps; however, genetic study suggests sister relationship to group consisting of Alopecoenas, Gallicolumba, Geopelia and others#R.

Genus GallicolumbaSpecies listFamily plate   Heck, 1849

Formerly considered to include Alopecoenas, but molecular data reveal that arrangement to be polyphyletic#R.

Genus AlopecoenasSpecies listFamily plate   Sharpe, 1899

Formerly included within Gallicolumba, but molecular data reveal that arrangement to be polyphyletic; present genus close to Leucosarcia, and also to Geophaps, Phaps, Ocyphaps and Geopelia#R.

Genus LeucosarciaSpecies listFamily plate   Gould, 1843

Monotypic genus of uncertain affinities; considered by some to be derived from bronzewings (Phaps and allied genera), but other authors have suggested a relationship with Gallicolumba, or with the monotypic Trugon of New Guinea. A new phylogenetic hypothesis, however, indicates that Leucosarcia is part of an Australasian radiation (rather than sister to Alopecoenas) and distant from Gallicolumba#R.

Genus PetrophassaSpecies listFamily plate   Gould, 1841

Belongs to the large radiation of Australian bronzewings, which also includes the genera Geophaps, Phaps and Ocyphaps, and, more distantly, Henicophaps and Chalcophaps.

Genus GeophapsSpecies listFamily plate   G. R. Gray, 1842

Belongs to the large radiation of Australian bronzewings, which also includes Petrophassa, Phaps and Ocyphaps, and, more distantly, Henicophaps and Chalcophaps; sometimes subsumed within Petrophassa.

Genus PhapsSpecies listFamily plate   Selby, 1835

Belongs to the large radiation of Australian bronzewings, which also includes Petrophassa, Geophaps and Ocyphaps, and, more distantly, Henicophaps and Chalcophaps.

Genus OcyphapsSpecies listFamily plate   G. R. Gray, 1842

Monospecific genus belonging to the large radiation of Australian bronzewings, which also includes Petrophassa, Geophaps and Phaps, and, more distantly, Henicophaps and Chalcophaps.

Genus GeopeliaSpecies listFamily plate   Swainson, 1837

Despite superficial resemblances to Streptopelia, probably most closely related to bronzewing group (Phaps and allies) on basis of behaviour.

Genus TrugonSpecies listFamily plate   G. R. Gray, 1849
Genus OtidiphapsSpecies listFamily plate   Gould, 1870
Genus GouraSpecies listFamily plate   Stephens, 1819

Unique among pigeons in having no gallbladder; also lacks oil-gland, has reticulate scaling on the strong, thick legs, and has 16 rectrices; no obvious close relatives.

Genus CaloenasSpecies listFamily plate   G. R. Gray, 1840

Distinctive genus of uncertain affinities. Probably close to Goura#R; perhaps closest to Gallicolumba, with which it may share a common ancestral stock. Larger extinct form C. canacorum, known from New Caledonia and Tonga, extinct c. 2500 years ago.

Genus DidunculusSpecies listFamily plate   Peale, 1848

Very distinctive genus of uncertain affinities, perhaps most closely allied to Gallicolumba. Some early workers placed it in its own family, Didunculidae, but recent molecular analyses indicate that it is basal to a clade containing Goura, Caloenas, Raphus and Pezophaps#R. Single species survives, although a larger, extinct member of the genus has been found in cave deposits on ‘Eua (S Tonga).

Genus ChalcophapsSpecies listFamily plate   Gould, 1843

Shows affinities with both Australian bronzewings (Phaps and allies) and African spot-winged doves (Turtur).

Genus TurturSpecies listFamily plate   Boddaert, 1783
Genus OenaSpecies listFamily plate   Swainson, 1837
Genus PhapitreronSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1854

Apparently has no close relatives; restricted to Philippines.

Genus TreronSpecies listFamily plate   Vieillot, 1816
Genus DuculaSpecies listFamily plate   Hodgson, 1836
Genus MegaloprepiaSpecies listFamily plate   Reichenbach, 1853

Until recently subsumed within Ptilinopus (which see); present genus is basal to all fruit-doves, and is characterized by bright yellow underwing-coverts#R.

Genus RamphiculusSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1854

Until recently subsumed within Ptilinopus (which see)#R; restricted to Philippines and Sulawesi, apart from one aberrant form from SE Asia, and characterized by relatively large size, and emarginated first primaries.

Genus AlectroenasSpecies listFamily plate   G. R. Gray, 1840

Distinctive genus, shown by molecular data to be nested amidst traditional Ptilinopus (which see).

Genus DrepanoptilaSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1855

Distinctive monotypic genus characterized by notched primaries and short, very rounded wings. Perhaps most closely related to Chrysoena, but recent genetic study indicates sister relationship with Alectroenas#R.

Genus ChrysoenaSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1854

Distinctive genus, comprising three small species, which are thought to represent an early colonization of Fiji by Ptilinopus stock; genus often merged into Ptilinopus (which see).

Genus PtilinopusSpecies listFamily plate   Swainson, 1825

Recent molecular work#R indicates that morphologically distinctive genera Alectroenas and Drepanoptila nest within traditional, expanded version of present genus; the different lineages are accommodated here by the additional recognition of genera Megaloprepia, Ramphiculus and Chrysoena; further work required in order to confirm that present genus as defined here, in reduced form, is now monophyletic.

Genus HemiphagaSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1854

Distinctive genus of uncertain affinities, perhaps allied to Lopholaimus, which also has only 12 tail feathers, and cere feathered dorsally; more distantly allied to Ducula.

Genus CryptophapsSpecies listFamily plate   Salvadori, 1893

Affinities uncertain; apparently close to Gymnophaps and possibly also to Ducula; alternatively, may be related to the cuckoo-dove assemblage (Macropygia/Turacoena/Reinwardtoena).

Genus GymnophapsSpecies listFamily plate   Salvadori, 1874

Relationships uncertain; somewhat similar to some Ducula in coloration and colour patterns; recent molecular study suggests probable sister relationship with Lopholaimus#R.

Genus LopholaimusSpecies listFamily plate   Gould, 1841

Distinctive monotypic genus of uncertain affinities. Perhaps most closely related to Hemiphaga, as both of these genera have only 12 tail feathers, while cere is feathered dorsally; recent molecular study suggests probable sister relationship with Gymnophaps#R.

Order Pterocliformes
Family Pteroclidae (Sandgrouse)Family species listFamily plate
Genus SyrrhaptesSpecies listFamily plate   Illiger, 1811

Recent genetic investigation#R suggested that this genus should also incorporate all species currently in Pterocles (see below), although that would mask relationships among the members of the family; alternatively, species could be grouped in three genera according to that study’s well-supported clades; or, more conservatively, a third treatment, involving two clades, may be more appropriate. Further study clearly required.

Genus PteroclesSpecies listFamily plate   Temminck, 1815

In recent genetic investigation#R, this genus as presently constituted was not recovered as monophyletic in any of the analyses, as it was rendered paraphyletic by Syrrhaptes. The placing of all species in Syrrhaptes (which pre-dates Pterocles), suggested as a possibility, would, however, mask relationships among the members of the family; alternatively, species could be grouped in three genera according to the well-supported clades found in the study; or, more conservatively, a third treatment, involving two clades, may be more appropriate. Further study clearly required.

Order Caprimulgiformes
Family Steatornithidae (Oilbird)Family species listFamily plate
Genus SteatornisSpecies listFamily plate   Humboldt, 1814
Family Podargidae (Frogmouths)Family species listFamily plate

Suggested to constitute two separate families, one Asian, the other Australasian, on basis of DNA-DNA hybridization results#R; some backing for this may be offered by the different nest structures of the two groups, but to date similarities generally considered to outweigh differences, and the proposal has received little support.

Genus RigidipennaSpecies listFamily plate   Cleere et al., 2007
Genus PodargusSpecies listFamily plate   Vieillot, 1818
Genus BatrachostomusSpecies listFamily plate   Gould, 1838
Family Nyctibiidae (Potoos)Family species listFamily plate
Genus NyctibiusSpecies listFamily plate   Vieillot, 1816

In mtDNA study of this genus, sequence divergence among species was greater (11.1–16.2%) than is typical for congeneric birds, and there was little constant evidence for strong relationships among any of the species except N. griseus, N. maculosus and N. leucopterus#R. In a more recent study, interspecific variation in cranial morphology found to be so extensive that inclusion of all species in a single genus could be misleading#R.

Family Caprimulgidae (Nightjars)Family species listFamily plate
Subfamily Eurostopodinae
Genus EurostopodusSpecies listFamily plate   Gould, 1838

Proposal that this genus be subsumed within Caprimulgus#R has received very little support; indeed now separated in different subfamilies.

Genus LyncornisSpecies listFamily plate   Gould, 1838

Previously subsumed within Eurostopodus, but recently resurrected#R, a decision supported by a separate phylogenetic study#R. The two species included here appear not to be closely related to Eurostopodus.

Subfamily Caprimulginae
Genus GactornisSpecies listFamily plate   Han et al., 2010

A new genus created to accommodate G. enarratus, formerly placed in Caprimulgus. Phylogenetic analysis indicated this species’ wide genetic divergence in both nuclear DNA and mtDNA from all other genera and all other caprimulgid species studied: enarratus found to be sister to, and basal to, all caprimulgids apart from Eurostopodus#R. Plumage pattern distinct from that of all other nightjars, including pronounced facial discs, and unique narrow collar on side and rear of neck, and detailed investigation desirable; feeding behaviour apparently unusual, hunting perhaps confined to interior of forest#R; white eggs laid on low shrub (rather than on ground); voice and vocal behaviour almost unknown, but thought probably to be unusual.

Genus ChordeilesSpecies listFamily plate   Swainson, 1832
Genus LurocalisSpecies listFamily plate   Cassin, 1851
Genus NyctiprogneSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1857
Genus NyctipolusSpecies listFamily plate   Ridgway, 1912

Previously subsumed within Caprimulgus, but recent studies indicate that separate treatment is more appropriate#R#R. Some recent authors have subsumed Nyctipolus within Antrostomus#R.

Genus SystelluraSpecies listFamily plate   Ridgway, 1912

Previously subsumed within Caprimulgus, but recent studies indicate that separate treatment is merited#R. Some recent authors have subsumed Systellura within Antrostomus#R.

Genus NyctidromusSpecies listFamily plate   Gould, 1838

Earlier genetic studies suggested that this genus was embedded in Caprimulgus#R, but more recent analyses found it to be basal to a group that included Uropsalis, Hydropsalis and some other New World groups#R. Present genus has been subsumed within Antrostomus by some authors#R.

Genus EleothreptusSpecies listFamily plate   G. R. Gray, 1840
Genus UropsalisSpecies listFamily plate   W. deW. Miller, 1915

Subsumed within Macropsalis by some authors#R#R, who maintain that distinguishing characters (primarily tail shape) are not appropriate for generic distinction.

Genus SetopagisSpecies listFamily plate   Ridgway, 1912

Previously subsumed within Caprimulgus, and more recently#R within Antrostomus. Phylogenetic study, however, indicates that it merits separate treatment#R.

Genus HydropsalisSpecies listFamily plate   Wagler, 1832
Genus MacropsalisSpecies listFamily plate   P. L. Sclater, 1866
Genus SiphonorhisSpecies listFamily plate   P. L. Sclater, 1861
Genus NyctiphrynusSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1857
Genus PhalaenoptilusSpecies listFamily plate   Ridgway, 1880
Genus AntrostomusSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1838

Previously subsumed within Caprimulgus, but recent phylogenetic study indicates that it merits separate treatment#R.

Genus CaprimulgusSpecies listFamily plate   Linnaeus, 1758
Genus VelesSpecies listFamily plate   Bangs, 1918
Family Aegothelidae (Owlet-nightjars)Family species listFamily plate
Genus AegothelesSpecies listFamily plate   Vigors & Horsfield, 1827
Family Hemiprocnidae (Treeswifts)Family species listFamily plate
Genus HemiprocneSpecies listFamily plate   Nitzsch, 1829
Family Apodidae (Swifts)Family species listFamily plate
Subfamily Cypseloidinae
Genus CypseloidesSpecies listFamily plate   Streubel, 1848
Genus StreptoprocneSpecies listFamily plate   Oberholser, 1906
Subfamily Apodinae

Sequence of genera here based on findings from recent phylogenetic studies#R#R#R.

Genus MearnsiaSpecies listFamily plate   Ridgway, 1911
Genus ZoonavenaSpecies listFamily plate   Mathews, 1918
Genus TelacanthuraSpecies listFamily plate   Mathews, 1918

In the past sometimes subsumed within Chaetura or, occasionally, Rhaphidura.

Genus RhaphiduraSpecies listFamily plate   Oates, 1883

Formerly merged into Chaetura.

Genus NeafrapusSpecies listFamily plate   Mathews, 1918

Genus formerly merged with Chaetura or Mearnsia.

Genus ChaeturaSpecies listFamily plate   Stephens, 1826
Genus HirundapusSpecies listFamily plate   Hodgson, 1837

Formerly subsumed within Chaetura, but is morphologically and structurally distinct#R.

Genus CollocaliaSpecies listFamily plate   G. R. Gray, 1840
Genus HydrochousSpecies listFamily plate   Brooke, 1970

Perhaps closest to Aerodramus, and these two commonly merged into Collocalia.

Genus AerodramusSpecies listFamily plate   Oberholser, 1906

Often subsumed within Collocalia.

Genus SchoutedenapusSpecies listFamily plate   de Roo, 1968

Previously subsumed within Apus; affinities uncertain.

Genus AeronautesSpecies listFamily plate   E. J. O. Hartert, 1892
Genus TachornisSpecies listFamily plate   Gosse, 1847
Genus PanyptilaSpecies listFamily plate   Cabanis, 1847
Genus CypsiurusSpecies listFamily plate   Lesson, 1843
Genus TachymarptisSpecies listFamily plate   Roberts, 1922

Has commonly been subsumed within Apus, but nowadays is increasingly separated; differs in feather lice, foot structure of nestling, large size, and tendency towards white underparts. Recent molecular phylogeny based on a taxon-complete sampling at species level of Tachymarptis and Apus revealed that the two genera were reciprocally monophyletic in all reconstructions#R.

Genus ApusSpecies listFamily plate   Scopoli, 1777

Recent molecular phylogeny based on a taxon-complete sampling at species level of Tachymarptis and Apus revealed that the two genera were reciprocally monophyletic in all reconstructions#R.

Family Trochilidae (Hummingbirds)Family species listFamily plate
Subfamily Florisuginae
Genus TopazaSpecies listFamily plate   G. R. Gray, 1840

Perhaps related to Eulampis and Anthracothorax through nest and display; in past placed close to Oreotrochilus.

Genus FlorisugaSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1850
Subfamily Phaethornithinae
Genus EutoxeresSpecies listFamily plate   Reichenbach, 1849
Genus RamphodonSpecies listFamily plate   Lesson, 1830
Genus GlaucisSpecies listFamily plate   Boie, 1831
Genus ThrenetesSpecies listFamily plate   Gould, 1852

It has been suggested that this genus should be subsumed within Glaucis#R.

Genus AnopetiaSpecies listFamily plate   Simon, 1918
Genus PhaethornisSpecies listFamily plate   Swainson, 1827
Subfamily Polytminae
Genus DoryferaSpecies listFamily plate   Gould, 1847

Genus formerly placed in subfamily Phaethornithinae owing largely to confusion regarding its nest, but behavioural and molecular studies suggest that it is not related to that subfamily; on basis of external morphology, hindneck musculature and behaviour it has even been placed, together with genus Androdon, in a separate subfamily, Doryferinae. Recent molecular analysis, however, indicates that both Doryfera and Androdon are part of the mango assemblage#R. In many older works generic name Hemistephania was used.

Genus SchistesSpecies listFamily plate   Gould, 1852

Previously subsumed within Augastes.

Genus AugastesSpecies listFamily plate   Gould, 1849

Affinities of genus unknown; song and nest pattern indicate relationship with Colibri.

Genus ColibriSpecies listFamily plate   Spix, 1824
Genus AndrodonSpecies listFamily plate   Gould, 1863

Genus formerly placed in subfamily Phaethornithinae, but behavioural and molecular studies suggest that the species is not related to that subfamily; on basis of external morphology, hindneck musculature and behaviour it has even been placed, together with genus Doryfera, in a separate subfamily, Doryferinae. Recent molecular analysis, however, indicates that both present genus and Doryfera are part of the mango assemblage#R.

Genus HeliactinSpecies listFamily plate   Boie, 1831
Genus HeliothryxSpecies listFamily plate   Boie, 1831
Genus PolytmusSpecies listFamily plate   Brisson, 1760

Previously thought to be close to genera Leucochloris and Leucippus, having morphological and behavioural affinities with those. Recent molecular analysis, however, indicates that present genus is part of the large mango assemblage#R.

Genus ChrysolampisSpecies listFamily plate   Boie, 1831

Genus previously thought to be very closely related to, or even congeneric with, Orthorhyncus, but recent molecular analysis indicates that the two are genetically well separated#R.

Genus AvocettulaSpecies listFamily plate   Reichenbach, 1849

Previously subsumed within Anthracothorax, mainly on grounds of some details of morphology, together with behaviour and nest structure. Remarkable form of bill, however, unique within the family. On the other hand, recent phylogenetic study based on plumage colour spectra supports retention in Anthracothorax#R.

Genus AnthracothoraxSpecies listFamily plate   Boie, 1831

Recent phylogenetic study based on plumage colour spectra suggests this genus is closest to Eulampis#R.

Genus EulampisSpecies listFamily plate   Boie, 1831

Recent phylogenetic study based on plumage colour spectra suggests that this genus is closest to Anthracothorax#R. Has been considered closely related to continental Anthracothorax and Topaza.

Subfamily Lesbiinae
Tribe Lesbiini

Recent molecular analysis found that most genera in the following linear sequence, from Heliangelus to Metallura, are members of a monophyletic group#R; authors of that study also proposed that Polyonymus, Sappho and Taphrolesbia (not sampled in their analysis) be included in same group.

Genus HeliangelusSpecies listFamily plate   Gould, 1848
Genus SephanoidesSpecies listFamily plate   G. R. Gray, 1840

Genus has been thought to be closely related to a high-Andean lineage that includes Oreotrochilus, Lesbia, Oreonympha and Metallura. Present generic name based on misspelling of species name.

Genus DiscosuraSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1850

Closely related to Lophornis. Includes genus Popelairia (formerly used for D. conversii, D. popelairii, D. langsdorffi and D. letitiae).

Genus LophornisSpecies listFamily plate   Lesson, 1829
Genus PhlogophilusSpecies listFamily plate   Gould, 1860

Occasionally subsumed within Adelomyia; more information needed in order to assess most appropriate generic placement of these two species.

Genus AdelomyiaSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1854

Systematic position poorly understood. Genera Phlogophilus, Urosticte and Anthocephala have been suggested as close relatives, some authors even considering all four to be congeneric; because monophyly of these four is doubtful, however, monospecific Adelomyia is maintained.

Genus AglaiocercusSpecies listFamily plate   J. T. Zimmer, 1930

In past, these species listed in genus Cyanolesbia, but the name is unidentifiable.

Genus SapphoSpecies listFamily plate   Reichenbach, 1849

Genus sometimes merged into Lesbia; may be closely related to L. victoriae.

Genus TaphrolesbiaSpecies listFamily plate   Simon, 1918

Systematic position uncertain; has been thought probably closest to Sappho and Polyonymus. Genetic data suggest that Taphrolesbia may be sister to Aglaiocercus#R.

Genus PolyonymusSpecies listFamily plate   Heine, 1863

Genus sometimes merged into Lesbia; affinities uncertain, but may be closely related to Taphrolesbia. Genetic data suggest that Polyonymus may be sister to Oreotrochilus#R.

Genus OreotrochilusSpecies listFamily plate   Gould, 1847
Genus OpisthoproraSpecies listFamily plate   Cabanis & Heine, 1860
Genus LesbiaSpecies listFamily plate   Lesson, 1833
Genus RamphomicronSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1850
Genus ChalcostigmaSpecies listFamily plate   Reichenbach, 1854

As presently constituted, genus is almost certainly polyphyletic#R#R. Chalcostigma and Metallura may be sister-genera#R#R. It has been proposed that Chalcostigma consists of two species-groups: (i) C. olivaceum + C. stanleyi, and (ii) C. ruficeps + (C. herrani + C. heteropogon)#R.

Genus OxypogonSpecies listFamily plate   Gould, 1848

Genus thought to be closely related to Chalcostigma, Oreonympha and Metallura. Recent genetic study found that this genus and Oreonympha, although closely related, were nested within Chalcostigma#R.

Genus OreonymphaSpecies listFamily plate   Gould, 1869

A distinctive genus which may, on basis mainly of plumage coloration, be closest to Oxypogon. Recent genetic study found that this genus and Oxypogon, although closely related, were nested within Chalcostigma#R.

Genus MetalluraSpecies listFamily plate   Gould, 1847

Genetic studies suggest that this genus and Chalcostigma may be sisters#R#R#R.

Tribe Heliantheini

Recent molecular study found that most of the genera in the following sequence, from Haplophaedia to Heliodoxa, formed a monophyletic group#R. Present family-group name selected over Docimastini by First Revisers#R.

Genus HaplophaediaSpecies listFamily plate   Simon, 1918

Sometimes merged into Eriocnemis; has also been considered to be close to Ocreatus and Urosticte.

Genus EriocnemisSpecies listFamily plate   Reichenbach, 1849

Genus generally considered sister-taxon to Haplophaedia.

Genus LoddigesiaSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1850

Preliminary genetic data suggest that this genus is close to, or even embedded within, Eriocnemis#R. In past, thought perhaps to be closely related to Heliactin and Heliothryx.

Genus AglaeactisSpecies listFamily plate   Gould, 1848
Genus CoeligenaSpecies listFamily plate   Lesson, 1833

Recent molecular studies found this genus to represent a monophyletic group, with Heliodoxa as sister#R.

Genus LafresnayaSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1850

Has been thought possibly close to Oreotrochilus on basis of behaviour and external morphology.

Genus EnsiferaSpecies listFamily plate   Lesson, 1843

Has been considered closely related to Coeligena, or even lumped with it#R, but this relationship is not supported by some studies#R.

Genus PterophanesSpecies listFamily plate   Gould, 1849

Has been thought to be closely related to Coeligena, or even lumped with it#R#R, but this not supported by some studies#R.

Genus BoissonneauaSpecies listFamily plate   Reichenbach, 1854
Genus OcreatusSpecies listFamily plate   Gould, 1846

On basis of display patterns, may be closely related to Haplophaedia, Eriocnemis and Urosticte.

Genus UrochroaSpecies listFamily plate   Gould, 1856

Formerly considered a close relative of Oreotrochilus; behaviour and morphology suggest phylogenetic affinities with Boissonneaua.

Genus UrosticteSpecies listFamily plate   Gould, 1853

On basis of behaviour, genus would belong to a clade including Haplophaedia, Eriocnemis and Ocreatus. Sometimes merged into Adelomyia.

Genus HeliodoxaSpecies listFamily plate   Gould, 1850
Genus ClytolaemaSpecies listFamily plate   Gould, 1853
Subfamily Patagoninae
Genus PatagonaSpecies listFamily plate   G. R. Gray, 1840

Relationships uncertain. One study found this genus was not close to any other trochilid group#R. Previously thought perhaps to be closely related to Coeligena, even to the point that the two might be merged.

Subfamily Trochilinae
Tribe Trochilini
Genus ChlorostilbonSpecies listFamily plate   Gould, 1853
Genus CynanthusSpecies listFamily plate   Swainson, 1827

Recent molecular study suggested that this genus was almost certainly embedded within Chlorostilbon#R.

Genus CyanophaiaSpecies listFamily plate   Reichenbach, 1854

Recent molecular study suggested that this genus was almost certainly embedded within Chlorostilbon#R. Nest type indicates affinities with Chlorostilbon and Cynanthus; voice suggests affinities with Thalurania.

Genus KlaisSpecies listFamily plate   Reichenbach, 1854

Sometimes merged into Abeillia; thought to be closely related to Stephanoxis.

Genus AbeilliaSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1850

Sometimes considered to incorporate Klais.

Genus OrthorhyncusSpecies listFamily plate   Lacépède, 1799

Previously thought to be very closely related to Chrysolampis, or even synonymous, but recent molecular analysis indicates that the two are genetically well separated#R.

Genus StephanoxisSpecies listFamily plate   Simon, 1897

Genus thought closely related to Klais.

Genus AphantochroaSpecies listFamily plate   Gould, 1853

Previously subsumed within Campylopterus, partly on grounds of external morphology and flattened and thickened shafts of outer primaries, but this treatment not supported by recent molecular study#R.

Genus AnthocephalaSpecies listFamily plate   Cabanis & Heine, 1860

Systematic relationships uncertain; perhaps closely related to Microchera, but sometimes considered close to Adelomyia, and possibly even synonymous.

Genus CampylopterusSpecies listFamily plate   Swainson, 1827

In one study, this genus was found to be monophyletic and the sister to Anthracothorax and Eulampis#R.

Genus EupetomenaSpecies listFamily plate   Gould, 1853

Previously subsumed within genus Campylopterus, largely on basis of song structure and enlarged shaft of primary of male, but such treatment has gained little support.

Genus EupherusaSpecies listFamily plate   Gould, 1857
Genus ElviraSpecies listFamily plate   Mulsant et al., 1866

Genus sometimes merged into Eupherusa.

Genus MicrocheraSpecies listFamily plate   Gould, 1858
Genus ChalyburaSpecies listFamily plate   Reichenbach, 1854
Genus ThaluraniaSpecies listFamily plate   Gould, 1848
Genus TaphrospilusSpecies listFamily plate   Simon, 1910

Genus sometimes merged with Leucippus.

Genus LeucochlorisSpecies listFamily plate   Reichenbach, 1854
Genus LeucippusSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1850

Genus as currently constituted found not to be monophyletic#R. Further research required.

Genus AmaziliaSpecies listFamily plate   Lesson, 1843

As currently constituted, this genus is not monophyletic#R; more thorough sampling of taxa required before a clearer picture can be presented. In HBW, species currently placed herein were spread out over six genera, with additional recognition of Agyrtria, Polyerata and Saucerottia, and relocation of some species in Leucippus and Hylocharis.

Genus TrochilusSpecies listFamily plate   Linnaeus, 1758

Genus previously thought to be closely related to Chlorostilbon. Recent study suggests much closer to Amazilia#R.

Genus ChrysuroniaSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1850

Monotypic genus, sometimes merged into Hylocharis because of similarity in plumage, but lacks swollen base of bill and enlarged nasal operculum of that genus. Recent study suggests that it is much closer to Amazilia#R.

Genus GoethalsiaSpecies listFamily plate   Nelson, 1912

Considered a close relative of Goldmania and perhaps of Hylocharis, sharing with former the long, stiffened central undertail-coverts; behaviour and external morphology show similarities to Eupherusa.

Genus GoldmaniaSpecies listFamily plate   Nelson, 1911

Genus linked with Goethalsia, with which it shares the long, stiffened central undertail-coverts; one proposal, based on external morphology, suggests placing of present species in Hylocharis; general behaviour, however, indicates possible affinities with Chlorostilbon. Study required.

Genus LepidopygaSpecies listFamily plate   Reichenbach, 1855
Genus JuliamyiaSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1854

This genus name replaces previously used Damophila, found to be preoccupied in Lepidoptera. Proposed replacement name Neodamophila#R not required, as Juliamyia already available. Affinities unclear; genus possibly close to Thalurania or Chlorostilbon.

Genus HylocharisSpecies listFamily plate   Boie, 1831
Genus BasilinnaSpecies listFamily plate   Boie, 1831

Genus often merged into Hylocharis, though external morphology suggests closer relationship to Lampornis.

Tribe Lampornithini
Genus SternoclytaSpecies listFamily plate   Gould, 1858

Genus sometimes merged into Eugenes or Heliodoxa.

Genus HylonymphaSpecies listFamily plate   Gould, 1873

Genus sometimes merged into Heliodoxa.

Genus EugenesSpecies listFamily plate   Gould, 1856

Genus sometimes merged into Heliodoxa.

Genus PanterpeSpecies listFamily plate   Cabanis & Heine, 1860
Genus HeliomasterSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1850

Some authors merge Rhodopis into this genus.

Genus LampornisSpecies listFamily plate   Swainson, 1827
Genus LamprolaimaSpecies listFamily plate   Reichenbach, 1854
Tribe Mellisugini

Molecular studies#R#R indicate that genera Myrtis, Eulidia, Rhodopis, Thaumastura and Chaetocercus form a monophyletic group that includes also Calypte, Archilochus and Selasphorus.

Genus MyrtisSpecies listFamily plate   Reichenbach, 1854
Genus EulidiaSpecies listFamily plate   Mulsant, 1877
Genus RhodopisSpecies listFamily plate   Reichenbach, 1854
Genus ThaumasturaSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1850
Genus ChaetocercusSpecies listFamily plate   G. R. Gray, 1855
Genus MyrmiaSpecies listFamily plate   Mulsant, 1876
Genus MicrostilbonSpecies listFamily plate   Todd, 1913

Sometimes merged into an expanded version of Calliphlox; on basis of morphological characters, may be better placed within Chaetocercus.

Genus CalliphloxSpecies listFamily plate   Boie, 1831

Occasionally treated as a monospecific genus; at other extreme, considered to include all species of currently recognized genera Microstilbon, Doricha, Tilmatura, Calothorax and, sometimes, also Thaumastura, on grounds that females are very similar, males differing essentially in specialized details of plumage.

Genus DorichaSpecies listFamily plate   Reichenbach, 1854

Genus sometimes merged into Calothorax, or incorporated in an expanded Calliphlox.

Genus TilmaturaSpecies listFamily plate   Reichenbach, 1854
Genus CalothoraxSpecies listFamily plate   G. R. Gray, 1840

Genus sometimes merged into an expanded version of Calliphlox. Closely related to genus Doricha, which sometimes united with present genus on basis of similarity in morphological characters.

Genus MellisugaSpecies listFamily plate   Brisson, 1760

Sometimes expanded to include all species currently placed in Calypte, Archilochus and Stellula (the last now subsumed within Selasphorus).

Genus CalypteSpecies listFamily plate   Gould, 1856

Often merged into Archilochus, and both have sometimes been subsumed within Selasphorus; in morphology, vocalizations and displays, however, members of present genus stand apart from the SelasphorusArchilochus assemblage. Alternatively, present genus sometimes merged into Mellisuga.

Genus ArchilochusSpecies listFamily plate   Reichenbach, 1854

Sometimes merged into Mellisuga; alternatively linked with Selasphorus.

Genus SelasphorusSpecies listFamily plate   Swainson, 1832
Genus AtthisSpecies listFamily plate   Reichenbach, 1854

Probably closely related to Selasphorus, and sometimes subsumed within it.

Order Opisthocomiformes
Family Opisthocomidae (Hoatzin)Family species listFamily plate

Monotypic family of uncertain affinities. Some morphological similarities with Galliformes, especially Cracidae. Recent work suggests relationship with Cuculiformes, near Crotophaginae; shares with some cuckoos (Cuculidae) and some turacos (Musophagidae) an ancestral adaptation of bill apparatus linked with food-processing#R, although anisodactyl toe structure quite different from zygodactyl arrangement of all cuckoos. Genetic studies suggested possible relationship with either cuckoos or turacos (latter supported by osteological, behavioural and fossil evidence)#R; another study, using both mitochondrial and nuclear genes, found Columbiformes as closest relative (weakly supported), to the exclusion of both Cuculidae and Musophagidae#R.

Genus OpisthocomusSpecies listFamily plate   Illiger, 1811
Order Cuculiformes
Family Cuculidae (Cuckoos)Family species listFamily plate
Subfamily Crotophaginae
Tribe Crotophagini
Genus CrotophagaSpecies listFamily plate   Linnaeus, 1758
Genus GuiraSpecies listFamily plate   Lesson, 1830
Tribe Neomorphini
Genus TaperaSpecies listFamily plate   Thunberg, 1819
Genus DromococcyxSpecies listFamily plate   Wied, 1832
Genus MorococcyxSpecies listFamily plate   P. L. Sclater, 1862
Genus GeococcyxSpecies listFamily plate   Wagler, 1831
Genus NeomorphusSpecies listFamily plate   Gloger, 1827
Subfamily Centropodinae
Tribe Couini
Genus CouaSpecies listFamily plate   Schinz, 1821
Genus CarpococcyxSpecies listFamily plate   G. R. Gray, 1840
Tribe Centropodini
Genus CentropusSpecies listFamily plate   Illiger, 1811
Subfamily Cuculinae
Tribe Phaenicophaeini
Genus RhinorthaSpecies listFamily plate   Vigors, 1830
Genus CeuthmocharesSpecies listFamily plate   Cabanis & Heine, 1863
Genus TaccocuaSpecies listFamily plate   Lesson, 1830
Genus ZanclostomusSpecies listFamily plate   Swainson, 1837
Genus PhaenicophaeusSpecies listFamily plate   Stephens, 1815
Genus DasylophusSpecies listFamily plate   Swainson, 1837
Genus LepidogrammusSpecies listFamily plate   Reichenbach, 1849
Genus RhamphococcyxSpecies listFamily plate   Cabanis & Heine, 1863
Genus ClamatorSpecies listFamily plate   Kaup, 1829
Genus CoccycuaSpecies listFamily plate   Lesson, 1830
Genus PiayaSpecies listFamily plate   Lesson, 1830
Genus CoccyzusSpecies listFamily plate   Vieillot, 1816

Incorporates West Indian genera Saurothera and Hyetornis, which were found in a recent molecular analysis to be embedded within Coccyzus#R.

Tribe Cuculini
Genus PachycoccyxSpecies listFamily plate   Cabanis, 1882
Genus MicrodynamisSpecies listFamily plate   Salvadori, 1878
Genus EudynamysSpecies listFamily plate   Vigors & Horsfield, 1827

Name sometimes misspelt Eudynamis.

Genus UrodynamisSpecies listFamily plate   Salvadori, 1880

Sometimes incorrectly spelt Urodynamys.

Genus ScythropsSpecies listFamily plate   Latham, 1790
Genus ChalcitesSpecies listFamily plate   Lesson, 1830

Commonly lumped into Chrysococcyx, but mtDNA divides bronze-cuckoos into two well-defined clades#R, and these may appropriately be treated as separate genera#R.

Genus ChrysococcyxSpecies listFamily plate   Boie, 1826
Genus CacomantisSpecies listFamily plate   S. Müller, 1843

Sometimes merged into Cuculus.

Genus HeteroscenesSpecies listFamily plate   Cabanis & Heine, 1863

Sometimes subsumed within Cacomantis or Cuculus.

Genus CaliechthrusSpecies listFamily plate   Cabanis & Heine, 1863

Sometimes subsumed within Cacomantis.

Genus CercococcyxSpecies listFamily plate   Cabanis, 1882
Genus SurniculusSpecies listFamily plate   Lesson, 1830
Genus HierococcyxSpecies listFamily plate   S. Müller, 1845

Often subsumed within Cuculus but shows notable morphological differences (e.g. in wing shape and tail-barring), and genetic data support this grouping#R.

Genus CuculusSpecies listFamily plate   Linnaeus, 1758
Order Gruiformes
Family Heliornithidae (Finfoots)Family species listFamily plate

Division into two subfamilies has been proposed#R: Heliopais and Podica in Podicinae; and Heliornis in Heliornithinae.

Genus PodicaSpecies listFamily plate   Lesson, 1831
Genus HeliopaisSpecies listFamily plate   Sharpe, 1893
Genus HeliornisSpecies listFamily plate   Bonnaterre, 1791
Family Rallidae (Rails, Gallinules, Coots)Family species listFamily plate
Subfamily Sarothrurinae
Genus SarothruraSpecies listFamily plate   Heine, 1890

Sometimes awarded a family of its own, Sarothruridae#R. In past, was subsumed within Coturnicops by some authors.

Subfamily Himantornithinae
Genus HimantornisSpecies listFamily plate   Hartlaub, 1855
Subfamily Rallinae
Genus CanirallusSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1856
Genus MentocrexSpecies listFamily plate   J. L. Peters, 1932

Sometimes subsumed within Canirallus, but differs in having imperforate (rather than perforate) nostrils.

Genus RalliculaSpecies listFamily plate   Schlegel, 1871

Sometimes subsumed within Rallina, but differs in marked sexual dimorphism.

Genus RallinaSpecies listFamily plate   G. R. Gray, 1846
Genus CoturnicopsSpecies listFamily plate   G. R. Gray, 1855
Genus MicropygiaSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1856
Genus RufirallusSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1856

Name Anurolimnas previously used for this genus, but Rufirallus has precedence#R.

Genus LaterallusSpecies listFamily plate   G. R. Gray, 1855
Genus RallusSpecies listFamily plate   Linnaeus, 1758
Genus NesoclopeusSpecies listFamily plate
Genus AramidopsisSpecies listFamily plate   Sharpe, 1893

Sometimes subsumed within Rallus, but differs in bill shape and plumage.

Genus LewiniaSpecies listFamily plate   G. R. Gray, 1855
Genus HabroptilaSpecies listFamily plate   G. R. Gray, 1861
Genus GallirallusSpecies listFamily plate   Lafresnaye, 1841

Recent molecular phylogeny of Pacific rails advocated that almost all of the species should be lumped under a broadly defined genus Gallirallus#R.

Genus EulabeornisSpecies listFamily plate   Gould, 1844

Genus sometimes enlarged to include Aramides, Amaurolimnas and Gymnocrex.

Genus HypotaenidiaSpecies listFamily plate   Reichenbach, 1853

Incorporates genera Habropteryx, Nesoclopeus and Tricholimnas; many forms previously placed in Gallirallus.

Genus DryolimnasSpecies listFamily plate   Sharpe, 1893
Genus CrexSpecies listFamily plate   Bechstein, 1803
Genus RougetiusSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1856
Genus AtlantisiaSpecies listFamily plate   Lowe, 1923
Genus AramidesSpecies listFamily plate   Pucheran, 1845

Sometimes merged into Eulabeornis.

Genus AmaurolimnasSpecies listFamily plate   Sharpe, 1893
Genus CyanolimnasSpecies listFamily plate   Barbour & J. L. Peters, 1927

Distinctiveness of genus from Neocrex merits elucidation.

Genus NeocrexSpecies listFamily plate   P. L. Sclater & Salvin, 1869

Sometimes subsumed within Porzana, but molecular analysis suggests it is probably sister to Aramides#R.

Genus PardirallusSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1856
Genus GymnocrexSpecies listFamily plate   Salvadori, 1875

Sometimes merged, with Aramides, in Eulabeornis; shows some similarities to Aramides, and may be derived from same stock.

Genus HapalocrexSpecies listFamily plate   Ridgway, 1920
Genus PorzanaSpecies listFamily plate   Vieillot, 1816
Genus ZaporniaSpecies listFamily plate   Leach, 1816
Genus AmaurornisSpecies listFamily plate   Reichenbach, 1853

Poliolimnas and Aenigmatolimnas are now subsumed within this genus. Differences in vocalizations among populations for which such data are available suggest that species diversity of bush-hens has probably been underestimated; further study required.

Genus MegacrexSpecies listFamily plate   D’Albertis & Salvadori, 1879
Genus GallicrexSpecies listFamily plate   Blyth, 1852
Genus PorphyrioSpecies listFamily plate   Brisson, 1760

Incorporates genera Porphyrula and Notornis.

Genus GallinulaSpecies listFamily plate   Brisson, 1760

Incorporates genus Porphyriornis.

Genus PareudiastesSpecies listFamily plate   Hartlaub & Finsch, 1871

Usually included within Gallinula, but differs in structure of bill, skull and tarsus, and in plumage pattern.

Genus TribonyxSpecies listFamily plate   Du Bus de Gisignies, 1840

Often subsumed within Gallinula, from which it differs in several morphological features.

Genus FulicaSpecies listFamily plate   Linnaeus, 1758
Family Psophiidae (Trumpeters)Family species listFamily plate
Genus PsophiaSpecies listFamily plate   Linnaeus, 1758
Family Aramidae (Limpkin)Family species listFamily plate

Shows morphological affinities with Gruidae and Rallidae. DNA studies suggested possible grouping with finfoots in family Heliornithidae, but more recent molecular analyses indicate that it is probably sister-family to Gruidae#R.

Genus AramusSpecies listFamily plate   Vieillot, 1816
Family Gruidae (Cranes)Family species listFamily plate

Probably sister-family to Aramidae#R.

Subfamily Balearicinae
Genus BalearicaSpecies listFamily plate   Brisson, 1760
Subfamily Gruinae
Genus LeucogeranusSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1855
Genus AntigoneSpecies listFamily plate   Reichenbach, 1853

Commonly merged into Grus.

Genus BugeranusSpecies listFamily plate   Gloger, 1842

Often included in Grus; ethological and DNA data imply closer to Anthropoides, but both sometimes merged into Grus; recent osteological and molecular studies support recognition of present genus#R#R.

Genus AnthropoidesSpecies listFamily plate   Vieillot, 1816

Often merged with Grus, but recent osteological and molecular studies support its recognition#R#R.

Genus GrusSpecies listFamily plate   Brisson#R, 1760
Order Otidiformes
Family Otididae (Bustards)Family species listFamily plate
Genus TetraxSpecies listFamily plate   T. I. M. Forster, 1817

In the past, frequently merged into Otis, and considered to be closely related to O. tarda mainly on grounds of similar bill shape and extensive sympatry; nowadays almost universally recognized as monotypic genus, and molecular phylogeny places it closer to Houbaropsis, Sypheotides and Lophotis#R. Recent detailed phylogenetic and biogeographical study, however, indicates that Tetrax is close to Otis and Chlamydotis#R.

Genus OtisSpecies listFamily plate   Linnaeus, 1758

Has frequently been considered to include Tetrax, and sometimes also Neotis and Ardeotis, but in structure, display and plumage highly distinctive and clearly meriting generic isolation from these forms.

Genus ChlamydotisSpecies listFamily plate   Lesson, 1839

Reported as apparently close to Neotis in HBW, but molecular evidence suggests it is closest to Otis#R.

Genus LissotisSpecies listFamily plate   Reichenbach, 1848

Frequently merged into Eupodotis.

Genus NeotisSpecies listFamily plate   Sharpe, 1893

Sometimes merged into Otis; more recently, molecular evidence suggests that it belongs with Ardeotis#R#R, but situation still not fully resolved and for the present Neotis retained.

Genus ArdeotisSpecies listFamily plate   Le Maout, 1853

In past, frequently listed as Choriotis, but Ardeotis has priority. Sometimes merged with Otis (which see). One recent phylogeny based on mtDNA found that Ardeotis arabs and A. kori formed a clade with Heterotetrax rueppelii#R.

Genus HoubaropsisSpecies listFamily plate   Sharpe, 1893

Sometimes merged into Eupodotis, but differs notably from all other bustards except Sypheotides in showing reversed sexual size dimorphism.

Genus SypheotidesSpecies listFamily plate   Lesson, 1839

Occasionally merged with Eupodotis, but differs notably from all other bustards except Houbaropsis in showing reversed sexual size dimorphism.

Genus LophotisSpecies listFamily plate   Reichenbach, 1848

Frequently merged into Eupodotis.

Genus HeterotetraxSpecies listFamily plate   Sharpe, 1894

Sometimes subsumed within Eupodotis.

Genus AfrotisSpecies listFamily plate   G. R. Gray, 1855

Frequently merged into Eupodotis. One study suggested that the two are sister taxa#R.

Genus EupodotisSpecies listFamily plate   Lesson, 1839

Relationships uncertain; further research required. One study suggested that this genus is sister to Afrotis#R.

Order Musophagiformes
Family Musophagidae (Turacos)Family species listFamily plate
Subfamily Corythaeolinae
Genus CorythaeolaSpecies listFamily plate   Heine, 1860
Subfamily Criniferinae
Genus CriniferoidesSpecies listFamily plate   Roberts, 1926

Previously included in Corythaixoides, but appears sufficiently distinctive to warrant monotypic genus#R.

Genus CriniferSpecies listFamily plate   Jarocki, 1821
Genus CorythaixoidesSpecies listFamily plate   A. Smith, 1833
Subfamily Musophaginae
Genus GallirexSpecies listFamily plate   Lesson, 1844
Genus TauracoSpecies listFamily plate   Kluk, 1779
Genus MusophagaSpecies listFamily plate   Isert, 1788

Recent cytochrome b work suggests this genus comprises specialized forms of typical turaco and should be merged into Tauraco#R; further study needed, as systematics of the entire group remain rather confused.

Order Gaviiformes
Family Gaviidae (Loons/Divers)Family species listFamily plate
Genus GaviaSpecies listFamily plate   J. R. Forster, 1788

In the past, older genus name Colymbus was used for these species, but it has been suppressed#R.

Order Sphenisciformes
Family Spheniscidae (Penguins)Family species listFamily plate
Genus AptenodytesSpecies listFamily plate   J. F. Miller, 1778
Genus PygoscelisSpecies listFamily plate   Wagler, 1832
Genus EudyptesSpecies listFamily plate   Vieillot, 1816
Genus MegadyptesSpecies listFamily plate   A. Milne-Edwards, 1880
Genus EudyptulaSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1856
Genus SpheniscusSpecies listFamily plate   Brisson, 1760
Order Procellariiformes
Family Oceanitidae (Southern Storm-petrels)Family species listFamily plate

Molecular evidence revealed that traditional grouping of all storm-petrels in a single family was paraphyletic#R#R; precise relationships at higher levels within this order are still disputed, but storm-petrels now generally split into two families, comprising “southern” Oceanitidae and “northern” Hydrobatidae#R.

Genus OceanitesSpecies listFamily plate   Keyserling & J. H. Blasius, 1840
Genus GarrodiaSpecies listFamily plate   W. A. Forbes, 1881
Genus PelagodromaSpecies listFamily plate   Reichenbach, 1853
Genus FregettaSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1855
Genus NesofregettaSpecies listFamily plate   Mathews, 1912
Family Hydrobatidae (Northern Storm-petrels)Family species listFamily plate

Molecular evidence revealed that traditional grouping of all storm-petrels in a single family was paraphyletic#R#R; precise relationships at higher levels within this order are still disputed, but storm-petrels now generally split into two families, comprising “southern” Oceanitidae and “northern” Hydrobatidae#R.

Genus HydrobatesSpecies listFamily plate   Boie, 1822

Incorporates Oceanodroma, within which Hydrobates was found in recent studies to be embedded#R#R; since Hydrobates is the older name, it is used for this expanded genus.

Family Diomedeidae (Albatrosses)Family species listFamily plate

Several recent reviews of this family have been produced. The following list owes much to an extensive phylogenetic analysis of 24 taxa based on full mtDNA (cytochrome b) sequences#R.

Genus DiomedeaSpecies listFamily plate   Linnaeus, 1758

Within the group of large albatrosses in this genus, significant confusion exists about the taxonomic rank of breeding populations on specific islands.

Genus PhoebetriaSpecies listFamily plate   Reichenbach, 1853
Genus PhoebastriaSpecies listFamily plate   Reichenbach, 1853

Previously subsumed within Diomedea.

Genus ThalassarcheSpecies listFamily plate   Reichenbach, 1853

This genus previously merged with Diomedea.

Family Procellariidae (Petrels, Shearwaters)Family species listFamily plate
Genus MacronectesSpecies listFamily plate   Richmond, 1905
Genus FulmarusSpecies listFamily plate   Stephens, 1826
Genus ThalassoicaSpecies listFamily plate   Reichenbach, 1853
Genus DaptionSpecies listFamily plate   Stephens, 1826
Genus PagodromaSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1856
Genus HalobaenaSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1856

Earlier proposal that this genus is closer to Pachyptila than to any other genus#R is supported by recent genetic data#R.

Genus PachyptilaSpecies listFamily plate   Illiger, 1811
Genus AphrodromaSpecies listFamily plate   Olson, 2000

Name Lugensa formerly used for this monotypic genus, but type species of that name is considered indeterminable; some authors, however, disagree and continue to use Lugensa#R#R#R.

Genus PterodromaSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1856

Sometimes divided into several subgenera#R. Includes several species described in genus Aestrelata, which was erroneously emended by some authors to Oestrelata.

Genus ProcellariaSpecies listFamily plate   Linnaeus, 1758
Genus ArdennaSpecies listFamily plate   Reichenbach, 1853

Previously included in Puffinus, but represents a lineage distinct from both Puffinus and Calonectris#R#R#R#R.

Genus CalonectrisSpecies listFamily plate   Mathews & Iredale, 1915
Genus PuffinusSpecies listFamily plate   Brisson, 1760

Until recently included all species currently placed in Ardenna, but these have now been shown to represent a distinct lineage#R#R#R#R. Taxonomy of the P. assimilis/P. lherminieri complex has long been debated. Recent molecular analysis by one group of researchers#R and further refinements by another#R have resulted in a major rearrangement of taxa and the promotion of many of them to species rank. Owing to the sheer number of taxa in the complex, the inaccessibility of much museum material for comparative purposes, the subtlety of many phenotypical characters and the expectation that nocturnal vocalizations, many unknown, will play a significant part in species limits, this is a particular case where the scoring system used herein is currently impractical. With the exception of N Atlantic taxa (see below under P. lherminieri) we therefore accept the taxonomy set out in one recent (2007) treatment#R as the most coherent reorganization of the complex based on the available evidence.

Genus PseudobulweriaSpecies listFamily plate   Mathews, 1936

Considered somewhat intermediate between Pterodroma and Bulweria. Previously merged into Pterodroma, but appears sufficiently distinctive #R.

Genus BulweriaSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1843

Separation from Pterodroma has been questioned, but supported by recent studies#R#R.

Genus PelecanoidesSpecies listFamily plate   Lacépède, 1799
Order Ciconiiformes
Family Ciconiidae (Storks)Family species listFamily plate
Genus LeptoptilosSpecies listFamily plate   Lesson, 1831
Genus MycteriaSpecies listFamily plate   Linnaeus, 1758
Genus AnastomusSpecies listFamily plate   Bonnaterre, 1791
Genus CiconiaSpecies listFamily plate   Brisson, 1760
Genus JabiruSpecies listFamily plate   Hellmayr, 1906
Genus EphippiorhynchusSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1855
Order Pelecaniformes
Family Threskiornithidae (Ibises, Spoonbills)Family species listFamily plate
Genus PlataleaSpecies listFamily plate   Linnaeus, 1758
Genus ThreskiornisSpecies listFamily plate   G. R. Gray, 1842
Genus PseudibisSpecies listFamily plate   Hodgson, 1844
Genus ThaumatibisSpecies listFamily plate   Elliot, 1877

Sometimes subsumed within Pseudibis, and probably closely related to it, but greater size, absence of contrasting colour markings, calling behaviour and ecological specialization on wetter substrates#R all indicate phylogenetic distinctiveness.

Genus GeronticusSpecies listFamily plate   Wagler, 1832
Genus NipponiaSpecies listFamily plate   Reichenbach, 1853
Genus BostrychiaSpecies listFamily plate   G. R. Gray, 1847

Incorporates genera Lampribis and Hagedashia.

Genus TheristicusSpecies listFamily plate   Wagler, 1832
Genus CercibisSpecies listFamily plate   Wagler, 1832
Genus MesembrinibisSpecies listFamily plate   J. L. Peters, 1930
Genus PhimosusSpecies listFamily plate   Wagler, 1832
Genus EudocimusSpecies listFamily plate   Wagler, 1832
Genus PlegadisSpecies listFamily plate   Kaup, 1829
Genus LophotibisSpecies listFamily plate   Reichenbach, 1853
Family Ardeidae (Herons)Family species listFamily plate
Genus ZonerodiusSpecies listFamily plate   Salvadori, 1882
Genus TigriornisSpecies listFamily plate   Sharpe, 1895

Sometimes subsumed within Tigrisoma#R.

Genus TigrisomaSpecies listFamily plate   Swainson, 1827
Genus AgamiaSpecies listFamily plate   Reichenbach, 1853
Genus CochleariusSpecies listFamily plate   Brisson, 1760

Has been placed in a separate, monospecific family Cochleariidae. Traditionally linked with night-herons (especially Nycticorax), but DNA studies indicate possible relationship with Tigrisoma. Recent analysis of skeletal characters, however, suggested possibly closer relationship to Botaurus and Ixobrychus#R.

Genus ZebrilusSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1855

Phylogenetic study indicates that Zebrilus, despite resemblance to Tigrisoma in plumage and forest habitat, is closest to Botaurus#R.

Genus BotaurusSpecies listFamily plate   Stephens, 1819
Genus IxobrychusSpecies listFamily plate   Billberg, 1828
Genus GorsachiusSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1855

Sometimes merged into Nycticorax.

Genus CalherodiusSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1855

Often merged into Gorsachius or Nycticorax.

Genus NycticoraxSpecies listFamily plate   T. I. M. Forster, 1817
Genus NyctanassaSpecies listFamily plate   Stejneger, 1887

Often merged into Nycticorax, but molecular study, as well as skeletal characters, indicates substantial divergence between the two#R.

Genus ButoridesSpecies listFamily plate   Blyth, 1852

Sometimes included in Ardeola.

Genus ArdeolaSpecies listFamily plate   Boie, 1822
Genus BubulcusSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1855

Genus has been incorporated variously into Ardea, Ardeola and Egretta. DNA studies indicate closer genetic link with Ardea than with Egretta#R#R.

Genus ArdeaSpecies listFamily plate   Linnaeus, 1758
Genus SyrigmaSpecies listFamily plate   Ridgway, 1878

Relationships of this genus have long been uncertain; DNA studies indicate that it may be sister to Egretta#R.

Genus PilherodiusSpecies listFamily plate   Reichenbach, 1853

Author of this genus has usually been given as Bonaparte, 1855, but the name Pilherodius was first used two years earlier, by Reichenbach#R.

Genus EgrettaSpecies listFamily plate   T. I. M. Forster, 1817
Family Scopidae (Hamerkop)Family species listFamily plate
Genus ScopusSpecies listFamily plate   Brisson, 1760

Origins and relationships somewhat obscure. Some affinities with Ardeidae, Ciconiidae, Balaenicipitidae, Phoenicopteridae and Charadriidae suspected. A recent molecular study found this form to be sister to Balaeniceps#R.

Family Balaenicipitidae (Shoebill)Family species listFamily plate
Genus BalaenicepsSpecies listFamily plate   Gould, 1850

Some morphological and behavioural affinities with Ardeidae, Scopidae and Pelecanidae; has previously been considered a member of Ciconiidae, and work on DNA suggested that it might belong within Pelecanidae. A recent molecular study found this form to be sister to Scopus#R.

Family Pelecanidae (Pelicans)Family species listFamily plate
Genus PelecanusSpecies listFamily plate   Linnaeus, 1758

Recent DNA work indicates that species in this genus fall into three well-supported clades: an Old World clade, a monospecific clade (Pelecanus onocrotalus, weakly grouped with the Old World clade), and a New World clade#R. These findings are reflected in the species sequence below.

Order Suliformes
Family Fregatidae (Frigatebirds)Family species listFamily plate

No close relatives identified#R.

Genus FregataSpecies listFamily plate   Lacépède, 1799
Family Sulidae (Gannets, Boobies)Family species listFamily plate
Genus PapasulaSpecies listFamily plate   Olson & Warheit, 1988

Apparently sister to a clade formed by Morus and Sula#R.

Genus MorusSpecies listFamily plate   Vieillot, 1816

Previously included in Sula, but recently found to represent a separate lineage#R.

Genus SulaSpecies listFamily plate   Brisson, 1760

Previously considered to include both Papasula and Morus, but recent study found that these taxa represent three monophyletic lineages#R.

Family Phalacrocoracidae (Cormorants)Family species listFamily plate
Genus MicrocarboSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1856

Previously subsumed within Phalacrocorax, and some phylogenetic studies support lumping all species of this family into the single genus#R. Name Halietor is a junior objective synonym of Microcarbo.

Genus PhalacrocoraxSpecies listFamily plate   Brisson, 1760

Sequence of species below is based on findings of recent phylogenetic study#R.

Family Anhingidae (Darters)Family species listFamily plate
Genus AnhingaSpecies listFamily plate   Brisson, 1760
Order Charadriiformes
Family Burhinidae (Thick-knees)Family species listFamily plate
Genus BurhinusSpecies listFamily plate   Illiger, 1811
Genus EsacusSpecies listFamily plate   Lesson, 1831

Sometimes merged into Burhinus.

Family Chionidae (Sheathbills)Family species listFamily plate
Genus ChionisSpecies listFamily plate   J. R. Forster, 1788

Genus Chionis described by diagnosis, but no species included; thus, description of genus pre-dates those of both species.

Family Pluvianellidae (Magellanic Plover)Family species listFamily plate

Formerly included in Charadriidae, sometimes in its own subfamily, but analysis of morphological characters indicates closer relationship to Chionidae#R#R; this relationship is supported by genetic data#R, which also suggest placement of Pluvianellus in a monotypic family, a conclusion backed up by recent analysis of phenotypic characters#R. Recently treated as a subfamily within Chionidae#R.

Genus PluvianellusSpecies listFamily plate   G. R. Gray, 1846
Family Pluvianidae (Egyptian Plover)Family species listFamily plate

Traditionally placed within Glareolidae; phylogenetic data confirm its distinctiveness, and indicate that it is distant from that family, being sister to the plover and oystercatcher/stilt/avocet clades#R.

Genus PluvianusSpecies listFamily plate   Vieillot, 1816
Family Haematopodidae (Oystercatchers)Family species listFamily plate
Genus HaematopusSpecies listFamily plate   Linnaeus, 1758

Species limits in this genus are complex, with varying degrees of hybridization where ranges of taxa overlap.

Family Ibidorhynchidae (Ibisbill)Family species listFamily plate

Traditionally linked with Recurvirostridae and Haematopodidae, and has sometimes even been included within the former, typically in its own subfamily. Genetic data support these relationships, with latter as sister-group#R.

Genus IbidorhynchaSpecies listFamily plate   Vigors, 1832
Family Recurvirostridae (Avocets, Stilts)Family species listFamily plate
Subfamily Recurvirostrinae
Genus CladorhynchusSpecies listFamily plate   G. R. Gray, 1840
Genus RecurvirostraSpecies listFamily plate   Linnaeus, 1758
Subfamily Himantopodinae
Genus HimantopusSpecies listFamily plate   Brisson, 1760
Family Charadriidae (Plovers)Family species listFamily plate
Subfamily Pluvialinae
Genus PluvialisSpecies listFamily plate   Brisson, 1760

Recent extensive genetic study#R indicates that, contrary to some earlier suggestions, this genus belongs in Charadriidae, being sister to the other genera placed in this family.

Subfamily Charadriinae
Genus OreopholusSpecies listFamily plate   Jardine & Selby, 1835

Sometimes subsumed within Eudromias, but validity of this monospecific genus is supported by analysis of phenotypic characters#R. Recent genetic study indicates that Oreopholus is sister to a clade consisting of Vanellus and Charadrius#R.

Genus PhegornisSpecies listFamily plate   G. R. Gray, 1847

Genetic data#R support placement of this genus in Charadriidae, rather than, as earlier suspected, in Scolopacidae.

Genus EudromiasSpecies listFamily plate   C. L. Brehm, 1830
Genus CharadriusSpecies listFamily plate   Linnaeus, 1758
Genus ThinornisSpecies listFamily plate   G. R. Gray, 1845

Sometimes subsumed within Charadrius. Limits and validity of Thinornis perhaps still debatable.

Genus ElseyornisSpecies listFamily plate   Mathews, 1914

Monotypic genus, often subsumed within Charadrius.

Subfamily Vanellinae
Genus HoploxypterusSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1856

Often merged into Vanellus, although in several aspects, including plumage details and some physiological features, exhibits similarities to Charadrius. Recent analysis of phenotypic characters indicates that it is sister to Vanellus#R.

Genus VanellusSpecies listFamily plate   Brisson, 1760
Genus ErythrogonysSpecies listFamily plate   Gould, 1838

Often placed in Charadrius, and traditionally grouped with other Australasian aberrant Charadrius-like genera; however, recently grouped in Vanellinae on basis of allozymes, patterning of wing and presence of hind toe#R, and phylogenetic study supports its distinction from Charadrius#R.

Genus PeltohyasSpecies listFamily plate   Sharpe, 1896

Relationships uncertain, and somewhat controversial: formerly considered to belong to family Glareolidae, where listed closest to genus Rhinoptilus, and on occasion, also in past, placed in genus Eudromias; more recent biochemical studies suggested that genus might possibly be merged with Charadrius#R. Since then, correct placement still unclear: one study grouped it with Vanellinae#R and another with Charadriinae#R.

Genus AnarhynchusSpecies listFamily plate   Quoy & Gaimard, 1830

Has been considered very close to Charadrius, and perhaps even congeneric. However, recent study, based on multigene evidence, placed present genus along with Erythrogonys and Peltohyas as forming sister clade to Vanellus#R.

Family Pedionomidae (Plains-wanderer)Family species listFamily plate

Traditionally placed in Gruiformes, in close association with Turnicidae, but genetic data#R#R#R#R indicate that it is sister to Thinocoridae, both belonging to the scolopacine radiation of the Charadriiformes.

Genus PedionomusSpecies listFamily plate   Gould, 1840
Family Thinocoridae (Seedsnipes)Family species listFamily plate
Genus AttagisSpecies listFamily plate   I. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire & Lesson, 1831
Genus ThinocorusSpecies listFamily plate   Eschscholtz, 1829
Family Rostratulidae (Painted-snipes)Family species listFamily plate
Genus RostratulaSpecies listFamily plate   Vieillot, 1816
Genus NycticryphesSpecies listFamily plate   Wetmore & J. L. Peters, 1923

Sometimes merged into Rostratula, but shows marked differences in morphology and behaviour.

Family Jacanidae (Jacanas)Family species listFamily plate
Genus JacanaSpecies listFamily plate   Brisson, 1760

Recent multigene phylogeny indicates that this genus and Hydrophasianus are closely related and form one of two groups within the family, the other containing all remaining currently recognized genera#R. Earlier proposals that Hydrophasianus be included in Jacana, or that Actophilornis, Metopidius and Irediparra be synonymized with Jacana, now out of favour.

Genus HydrophasianusSpecies listFamily plate   Wagler, 1832

Recent multigene phylogeny indicates that this genus and Jacana are closely related#R (see Genus Jacana).

Genus ActophilornisSpecies listFamily plate   Oberholser, 1925

Occasionally lumped with Irediparra and Microparra in Metopidius, or alternatively with Metopidius and Irediparra in Jacana, but neither proposal widely accepted (see Genus Jacana).

Genus MetopidiusSpecies listFamily plate   Wagler, 1832

Occasionally considered to include Actophilornis, Irediparra and Microparra, or alternatively lumped with Actophilornis and Irediparra in Jacana, but neither proposal widely accepted (see Genus Jacana).

Genus IrediparraSpecies listFamily plate   Mathews, 1911

Occasionally lumped with Actophilornis and Microparra in Metopidius, or alternatively with Actophilornis and Metopidius in Jacana, but neither proposal widely accepted (see Genus Jacana).

Genus MicroparraSpecies listFamily plate   Cabanis, 1877

Occasionally lumped with Actophilornis and Irediparra in Metopidius, but this proposal not widely accepted (see Genus Jacana).

Family Scolopacidae (Sandpipers, Snipes, Phalaropes)Family species listFamily plate

Sequence of species in this family is based largely on findings of a recent phylogenetic study#R.

Subfamily Numeniinae
Genus BartramiaSpecies listFamily plate   Lesson, 1831
Genus NumeniusSpecies listFamily plate   Brisson, 1760
Subfamily Limosinae
Genus LimosaSpecies listFamily plate   Brisson, 1760
Subfamily Calidrinae
Tribe Arenariini
Genus ArenariaSpecies listFamily plate   Brisson, 1760
Tribe Calidrini

Recent phylogenetic study indicated that the hitherto recognized monotypic genera Aphriza, Philomachus, Limicola, Eurynorhynchus and Tryngites should all be merged into genus Calidris#R; this suggestion has been adopted in a recently published classification#R, on which the following sequence is based. See also under Calidris pugnax (below).

Genus CalidrisSpecies listFamily plate   Merrem, 1804

Name Erolia, often used in the past in North America, is a synonym of Calidris.

Genus ProsoboniaSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1850
Subfamily Scolopacinae
Tribe Limnodromini
Genus LimnodromusSpecies listFamily plate   Wied, 1833
Tribe Scolopacini
Genus ScolopaxSpecies listFamily plate   Linnaeus, 1758
Genus CoenocoryphaSpecies listFamily plate   G. R. Gray, 1855
Genus GallinagoSpecies listFamily plate   Brisson, 1760

Formerly referred to as Capella, because this name was erroneously thought to pre-date Gallinago.

Genus LymnocryptesSpecies listFamily plate   Boie, 1826
Subfamily Tringinae
Tribe Phalaropodini

Sometimes accorded family status, Phalaropodidae#R, but taxa involved appear to be sister to the remaining taxa in subfamily Tringinae#R.

Genus SteganopusSpecies listFamily plate   Vieillot, 1818

Sometimes subsumed within Phalaropus, but genetically distinct, and with several ecological and morphological differences; possibly quite close to Tringa.

Genus PhalaropusSpecies listFamily plate   Brisson, 1760
Tribe Tringini
Genus XenusSpecies listFamily plate   Kaup, 1829

Often subsumed within Tringa; molecular evidence, however, places it basal to that clade and closest to Phalaropus#R.

Genus ActitisSpecies listFamily plate   Illiger, 1811

Sometimes included in Tringa, but recent molecular study indicated that the two are almost certainly sister-genera#R.

Genus TringaSpecies listFamily plate   Linnaeus, 1758

Sometimes considered to include Actitis, but recent molecular study indicated that the two are almost certainly sister-genera#R. Also incorporates previously recognized genera Heteroscelus and Catoptrophorus#R.

Family Turnicidae (Buttonquails)Family species listFamily plate

Previously placed in Gruiformes, but now universally accepted as belonging in Charadriiformes#R#R#R.

Genus TurnixSpecies listFamily plate   Bonnaterre, 1791
Genus OrtyxelosSpecies listFamily plate   Vieillot, 1825

Differs from Turnix in morphology, ecology and behaviour; shape and structure, especially of wing and tail, and colour pattern of upperwing quite different.

Family Dromadidae (Crab-plover)Family species listFamily plate

Previously placed in its own superfamily, mainly on grounds of plumage of downy chicks; sometimes grouped with Laridae or (because of burrow-nesting habits) with Alcidae. Few recent studies have included material for this species#R, but nowadays normally considered closest to Glareolidae#R, and recent molecular work supports a sister-relationship for these two#R.

Genus DromasSpecies listFamily plate   Paykull, 1805
Family Glareolidae (Coursers, Pratincoles)Family species listFamily plate
Genus SmutsornisSpecies listFamily plate   Roberts, 1922

Often subsumed within Rhinoptilus, or sometimes Cursorius, but shows significant differences in behaviour and syringeal morphology#R.

Genus RhinoptilusSpecies listFamily plate   Strickland, 1852
Genus CursoriusSpecies listFamily plate   Latham, 1790
Genus StiltiaSpecies listFamily plate   G. R. Gray, 1855

Forms an apparent link between genera Cursorius and Glareola.

Genus GlareolaSpecies listFamily plate   Brisson, 1760
Family Laridae (Gulls, Terns, Skimmers)Family species listFamily plate
Subfamily Anoinae
Genus AnousSpecies listFamily plate   Stephens, 1826
Genus ProcelsternaSpecies listFamily plate   Lafresnaye, 1842
Subfamily Gyginae
Genus GygisSpecies listFamily plate   Wagler, 1832
Subfamily Rynchopinae
Genus RynchopsSpecies listFamily plate   Linnaeus, 1758
Subfamily Larinae
Genus SaundersilarusSpecies listFamily plate   Dwight, 1926

Previously included within Larus (which see), but differs in its compressed bill, its long, slender tarsi, and its incised webs between the long toes; recently resurrected on basis of genetic data#R#R.

Genus HydrocoloeusSpecies listFamily plate   Kaup, 1829

Previously included within Larus (which see); recently resurrected on basis of genetic data#R#R. Apparently sister to Rhodostethia#R.

Genus RhodostethiaSpecies listFamily plate   W. MacGillivray, 1842

Apparently sister to Hydrocoloeus#R, and sometimes merged into it, but, although there are many phenotypic and behavioural similarities between them, they show significant differences in adult plumage.

Genus CreagrusSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1854
Genus XemaSpecies listFamily plate   Leach, 1819

Recent study found this genus to be sister to Pagophila#R, despite entirely different plumages.

Genus PagophilaSpecies listFamily plate   Kaup, 1829

Osteologically quite distinct from Larus; considered by some intermediate between the gulls and the skuas (Stercorariidae). Recent study found this genus to be sister to Xema#R, despite entirely different plumages.

Genus RissaSpecies listFamily plate   Stephens, 1826
Genus LarusSpecies listFamily plate   Linnaeus, 1758

Incorporates Chroicocephalus, Leucophaeus and Ichthyaetus; several other genera, including Saundersilarus and Hydrocoloeus, have often been included in Larus, as occasionally have Xema and even Rissa, but all of these appear distinct. Recent genetic studies found that Larus as previously constituted was polyphyletic#R#R; some workers propose solving this by the removal of many species to other genera#R; a subsequent study, with much larger sample analysed, concluded that, in order to retain the monophyly of Larus, only two species (saundersi and minutus) would need to be moved to different genera#R, an arrangement followed here.

Subfamily Sterninae
Genus OnychoprionSpecies listFamily plate   Wagler, 1832

Previously included in Sterna. Genetic data indicate that the four species now placed in this genus form a monophyletic group, which is the outgroup to all other terns#R, prompting the resurrection of Onychoprion.

Genus SternulaSpecies listFamily plate   Boie, 1822

Previously included in Sterna.

Genus PhaetusaSpecies listFamily plate   Wagler, 1832
Genus GelochelidonSpecies listFamily plate   C. L. Brehm, 1830

Along with Onychoprion, Sternula, Hydroprogne, Chlidonias and Thalasseus, often merged into Sterna; behaviour intermediate between typical terns and crested terns, and unique combination of characters supports separate generic treatment. Recent genetic analysis also supports the retention of Gelochelidon#R.

Genus HydroprogneSpecies listFamily plate   Kaup, 1829

Along with Onychoprion, Sternula, Gelochelidon, Chlidonias and Thalasseus, often merged into Sterna on basis primarily of ethological evidence; differs from all other terns, however, in massive, heavy bill. Recognition of monotypic Hydroprogne supported also by molecular evidence#R.

Genus LarosternaSpecies listFamily plate   Blyth, 1852
Genus ChlidoniasSpecies listFamily plate   Rafinesque, 1822

Sometimes subsumed within Sterna, but genetic study supports its retention#R.

Genus SternaSpecies listFamily plate   Linnaeus, 1758

Sometimes treated as including one or more of the genera Onychoprion, Sternula, Gelochelidon, Hydroprogne, Chlidonias and Thalasseus.

Genus ThalasseusSpecies listFamily plate   Boie, 1822

Often subsumed within Sterna, but recent genetic data support its recognition#R. Species placed herein share certain common features of morphology which set them apart from other terns.

Family Stercorariidae (Skuas)Family species listFamily plate
Genus StercorariusSpecies listFamily plate   Brisson, 1760
Genus CatharactaSpecies listFamily plate   Brünnich, 1764

Often subsumed within Stercorarius#R#R, but recent phylogenetic study based on skeletal morphology#R indicates that these four species represent a monophyletic genus, sister of which is Stercorarius pomarinus. All skua taxa of S oceans are very closely related, with at least some gene flow among several populations#R.

Family Alcidae (Auks)Family species listFamily plate
Subfamily Aethiinae
Genus CerorhincaSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1828
Genus FraterculaSpecies listFamily plate   Brisson, 1760
Genus PtychoramphusSpecies listFamily plate   J. F. Brandt, 1837
Genus AethiaSpecies listFamily plate   Merrem, 1788
Subfamily Alcinae
Genus BrachyramphusSpecies listFamily plate   J. F. Brandt, 1837
Genus CepphusSpecies listFamily plate   Pallas, 1769
Genus SynthliboramphusSpecies listFamily plate   J. F. Brandt, 1837

Incorporates Endomychura, which has occasionally been used for a few of the murrelet species.

Genus AlcaSpecies listFamily plate   Linnaeus, 1758
Genus AlleSpecies listFamily plate   Link, 1806

In the past, listed as monospecific genus Plautus, but this name is unavailable.

Genus UriaSpecies listFamily plate   Brisson, 1760
Order Strigiformes
Family Tytonidae (Barn-owls)Family species listFamily plate
Subfamily Phodilinae
Genus PhodilusSpecies listFamily plate   I. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1830
Subfamily Tytoninae
Genus TytoSpecies listFamily plate   Billberg, 1828
Family Strigidae (Typical Owls)Family species listFamily plate
Subfamily Ieraglaucinae
Genus NinoxSpecies listFamily plate   Hodgson, 1837

Affinities of many species in this genus are uncertain; research required in order to clarify relationships.

Genus UroglauxSpecies listFamily plate   Mayr, 1937

Closely allied to Ninox, and sometimes merged with it, but wings more rounded.

Subfamily Surniinae
Genus SurniaSpecies listFamily plate   Duméril, 1805

Relationships uncertain; placed near Glaucidium on the basis of osteology and DNA.

Genus GlaucidiumSpecies listFamily plate   Boie, 1826

Recent study of genetic data indicated that, while this genus is monophyletic, a major division exists between New World species and most of the Old World taxa#R, with proposal that latter be separated in genus Taenioglaux. As a consequence, Old World species, with exception of first four below (G. passerinum, G. brodiei, G. perlatum and G. tephronotum), have been placed in Taenioglaux by some recent authors#R; here considered more appropriate at present time to await further research and more extensive sampling of taxa.

Genus XenoglauxSpecies listFamily plate   O’Neill and G. R. Graves, 1977
Genus MicratheneSpecies listFamily plate   Coues, 1866
Genus AtheneSpecies listFamily plate   Boie, 1822

Incorporates genus Speotyto.

Genus HeteroglauxSpecies listFamily plate   A. O. Hume, 1873
Genus AegoliusSpecies listFamily plate   Kaup, 1829
Subfamily Striginae
Genus OtusSpecies listFamily plate   Pennant, 1769

Sequence of species in this genus is adopted in an attempt to conform to the findings of several recent molecular-phylogenetic studies#R#R, notwithstanding difficulty that a considerable number of taxa have not yet been sampled. Relationships of many species remain uncertain. Includes genus Mimizuku. Previously incorporated genus Megascops.

Genus PyrroglauxSpecies listFamily plate   Yamashina, 1938
Genus PtilopsisSpecies listFamily plate   Kaup, 1848

Genus until recently merged with Otus, but shown by molecular-biological studies to be very different, and eyes also much bigger.

Genus AsioSpecies listFamily plate   Brisson, 1760
Genus PseudoscopsSpecies listFamily plate   Kaup, 1848

Genus formerly merged with Asio; believed to be possibly closest to Asio, with similar contact calls, but often considered particularly close to Otus, while some authorities think that it is linked with Athene and Aegolius.

Genus NesasioSpecies listFamily plate   J. L. Peters, 1937
Genus PsiloscopsSpecies listFamily plate   Coues, 1899

Previously subsumed within Otus, but differs in several respects#R.

Genus MegascopsSpecies listFamily plate   Kaup, 1848

Previously subsumed within Otus, but differs in several respects, including voice. Genetic analyses reveal clear division between New World species and Old World Otus#R, and indicate a sister relationship between Megascops and Psiloscops#R.

Genus MargarobyasSpecies listFamily plate   Olson & Suárez, 2008

A replacement genus name for Gymnoglaux; latter shown to be an objective synonym of Gymnasio, both names currently being treated as synonyms of Megascops#R#R.

Genus PulsatrixSpecies listFamily plate   Kaup, 1848
Genus StrixSpecies listFamily plate   Linnaeus, 1758
Genus JubulaSpecies listFamily plate   Bates, 1929
Genus LophostrixSpecies listFamily plate   Lesson, 1836

Genus considered by some to be related to Otus, and by others to Bubo. Recent studies, however, also suggest that it may have some link with Pulsatrix.

Genus BuboSpecies listFamily plate   Duméril, 1805

Includes Nyctea.

Genus KetupaSpecies listFamily plate   Lesson, 1830

Sometimes subsumed within Bubo, or treated as a subgenus; separated on basis of slight differences in skull morphology. Molecular evidence suggests that Ketupa forms a robust clade within Bubo and therefore merits subgeneric ranking#R.

Genus ScotopeliaSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1850

Relationships of genus uncertain, but appears closely related to Bubo; in recent monograph, given the rank of a subgenus within Bubo#R.

Genus CiccabaSpecies listFamily plate   Wagler, 1832

Frequently subsumed within Strix, to which it is genetically close, but differs in external ear structure.

Order Cathartiformes
Family Cathartidae (New World Vultures)Family species listFamily plate
Genus CathartesSpecies listFamily plate   Illiger, 1811
Genus CoragypsSpecies listFamily plate   Le Maout, 1853
Genus SarcoramphusSpecies listFamily plate   Duméril, 1805
Genus GymnogypsSpecies listFamily plate   Lesson, 1842
Genus VulturSpecies listFamily plate   Linnaeus, 1758
Order Accipitriformes
Family Sagittariidae (Secretarybird)Family species listFamily plate
Genus SagittariusSpecies listFamily plate   Hermann, 1783

Most morphological, behavioural and molecular affinities with other Accipitriformes, especially Accipitridae; some behavioural affinities with Ciconiidae. Proposed relationships to Cariamidae and other Gruiformes unsubstantiated.

Family Pandionidae (Osprey)Family species listFamily plate
Genus PandionSpecies listFamily plate   Savigny, 1809

Sometimes included within family Accipitridae, usually in its own subfamily, Pandioninae.

Family Accipitridae (Hawks, Eagles)Family species listFamily plate
Subfamily Elaninae
Genus ElanusSpecies listFamily plate   Savigny, 1809

Recent phylogenetic study of family found that this genus and Gampsonyx were sister-taxa and were basal to all other accipitrid genera#R. Chelictinia commonly thought to be closely related to Elanus and sometimes subsumed within it.

Genus GampsonyxSpecies listFamily plate   Vigors, 1825

Recent phylogenetic study found this genus and Elanus to be sister-taxa and basal to all other accipitrid genera#R. Formerly thought to be a falconid related to Polihierax and Spiziapteryx, but osteological evidence, scutellation and moult pattern, in addition to DNA data, place it near Elanus.

Genus ChelictiniaSpecies listFamily plate   Lesson, 1843

Commonly thought to be closely related to Elanus and sometimes subsumed within it, but differs in morphology.

Subfamily Gypaetinae
Tribe Pernini
Genus LeptodonSpecies listFamily plate   Sundevall, 1836

Recent phylogenetic study found some evidence of relationship with Chondrohierax#R. Apparent affinity with Old World honey-buzzards (Pernis) and bazas (Aviceda) requires corroboration through molecular analyses.

Genus ChondrohieraxSpecies listFamily plate   Lesson, 1843

Recent phylogenetic study found some evidence of fairly close relationship to Leptodon#R.

Genus ElanoidesSpecies listFamily plate   Vieillot, 1818

Not clearly or closely related to any other genus, but some similarities to Elanus and the Pernis group.

Genus PernisSpecies listFamily plate   Cuvier, 1816

Recent study indicated that this genus is sister to Aviceda, with Australasian Henicopernis and Old World vultures Gypaetus and Neophron rather distant relatives#R.

Genus HamirostraSpecies listFamily plate   T. Brown, 1846

In the past, commonly regarded as a primitive kite with milvine affinities. In recent decades, suggested to be part of an old endemic Australasian clade which also includes Lophoictinia and Henicopernis; the close relationship of these three genera was strongly supported by a recent phylogenetic study using DNA sequences#R, which concluded that the three belong together in Pernini, and indeed might perhaps be considered congeneric; the same study firmly rejected a suggested relationship of these three with three other species-poor Australo-Papuan genera, namely Harpyopsis, Erythrotriorchis and Megatriorchis.

Genus LophoictiniaSpecies listFamily plate   Kaup, 1847

Has been regarded as related to Milvus, but resemblance superficial and convergent. Now considered part of an endemic Australasian clade which also includes Hamirostra and Henicopernis (see above, Hamirostra).

Genus HenicopernisSpecies listFamily plate   G. R. Gray, 1859

Traditionally considered close to Pernis, although one molecular study suggested that it is rather distantly related to that genus#R. Now considered part of an endemic Australasian clade which also includes Hamirostra and Lophoictinia (see above, Hamirostra).

Genus AvicedaSpecies listFamily plate   Swainson, 1836

Recent genetic study indicated that this genus is sister to Pernis#R.

Genus EutriorchisSpecies listFamily plate   Sharpe, 1875

Affinities uncertain; previously thought to be most similar to likewise monotypic African Dryotriorchis. Placement with Pernis and relatives suggested in recent DNA study#R.

Tribe Gypaetini
Genus PolyboroidesSpecies listFamily plate   A. Smith, 1829

Relationships far from clear; has been associated variously with Spilornis, Dryotriorchis, Circus and Geranospiza, but also thought possibly closest to Melierax. Recent phylogenetic study indicated that apparent morphological and behavioural similarity to much smaller Neotropical Geranospiza due to convergence, rather than to genetic relatedness#R.

Genus GypohieraxSpecies listFamily plate   Rüppell, 1836

Has been considered intermediate between fish-eagles and vultures.

Genus GypaetusSpecies listFamily plate   Storr, 1784

Doubtful affinities; usually considered closest to Neophron.

Genus NeophronSpecies listFamily plate   Savigny, 1809

Possibly closest to Gypaetus; has been combined with Necrosyrtes, but differs in morphology and some aspects of behaviour.

Subfamily Accipitrinae
Tribe Circaetini
Genus SpilornisSpecies listFamily plate   G. R. Gray, 1840

Taxonomy extremely confused and tentative; complete revision and extensive study of relationships and species limits required. Research priorities include field studies of biology, especially with regard to prey and vocalizations, and laboratory analyses of DNA; extent of sympatry of various taxa requires full investigation.

Genus DryotriorchisSpecies listFamily plate   Shelley, 1874

May be most closely related to Asian Spilornis; previously thought to be most similar to Madagascan Eutriorchis. Recent molecular phylogeny, however, found that it falls within the clade of typical African snake-eating eagles of genus Circaetus#R.

Genus TerathopiusSpecies listFamily plate   Lesson, 1830

Several features of morphology, in addition to juvenile plumage and feeding habits, indicate links with Circaetus.

Genus PithecophagaSpecies listFamily plate   Ogilvie-Grant, 1896

Affinities uncertain. Recent molecular study suggested that it may be sister to Circaetus#R.

Genus CircaetusSpecies listFamily plate   Vieillot, 1816
Tribe Gypini
Genus SarcogypsSpecies listFamily plate   Lesson, 1842

In the past, often subsumed within Aegypius.

Genus TrigonocepsSpecies listFamily plate   Lesson, 1842

In the past, often subsumed within Aegypius.

Genus NecrosyrtesSpecies listFamily plate   Gloger, 1841

Sometimes combined with Neophron, but differs markedly in morphology and e.g. nesting behaviour.

Genus GypsSpecies listFamily plate   Savigny, 1809

Sequence of species in following list is based on that suggested in recent phylogenetic and phylogeographical study#R.

Genus AegypiusSpecies listFamily plate   Savigny, 1809

Sometimes considered to incorporate genera Sarcogyps, Trigonoceps and Torgos.

Genus TorgosSpecies listFamily plate   Kaup, 1828

Formerly subsumed within Aegypius.

Tribe Accipitrini
Genus MacheiramphusSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1850

Affinities uncertain; formerly placed in Falconidae. Recent DNA study indicated that this genus is closest to Harpyopsis, Morphnus and Harpia#R. Name often spelt Machaerhamphus, but present spelling has priority.

Genus HarpyopsisSpecies listFamily plate   Salvadori, 1875

Traditionally considered related to Harpia and Pithecophaga. Recent phylogenetic study found that present genus, Morphnus and Harpia formed a well-defined clade, but were not close to Pithecophaga#R. Another recent phylogenetic study using DNA sequences#R reconfirmed relationship with Morphnus and Harpia and suggested that all three might be lumped into a single genus, perhaps also including even Macheiramphus; the same study firmly rejected a proposed clade of species-poor endemic Australo-Papuan genera comprising the pernine Hamirostra, Lophoictinia and Henicopernis, the hawks Erythrotriorchis and Megatriorchis (both close to Accipiter), and present genus.

Genus MorphnusSpecies listFamily plate   Dumont de Sainte Croix, 1816

One recent phylogenetic study found that this genus, Harpyopsis and Harpia formed a well-defined clade#R. Another molecular study suggested that Morphnus was hardly separable from Harpia and that the two should perhaps be merged#R.

Genus HarpiaSpecies listFamily plate   Vieillot, 1816

One recent phylogenetic study found that this genus, Harpyopsis and Morphnus formed a well-defined clade#R. Another molecular study suggested that it was so similar to Morphnus as to be hardly separable from it, and that the two should perhaps be merged#R.

Genus StephanoaetusSpecies listFamily plate   W. L. Sclater, 1922

Sometimes merged with Spizaetus (sensu lato), but skeletal anatomy recalls Harpia. In study of Spizaetus and its presumed close relatives, present genus suggested as being part of a clade of American and African hawk-eagles that included several members of Spizaetus (sensu lato), as well as some species traditionally placed in Lophaetus, Aquila and Hieraaetus#R.

Genus NisaetusSpecies listFamily plate   Hodgson, 1836

Asian genus previously included within Spizaetus, but recent studies support its recognition as separate from American taxa#R#R.

Genus LophotriorchisSpecies listFamily plate   Sharpe, 1874

Molecular studies indicate that this taxon occupies a phylogenetic position isolated from other hawk-eagles#R#R.

Genus PolemaetusSpecies listFamily plate   Heine, 1890

One recent phylogeny considered present genus to be sister to a clade formed by Lophaetus, Aquila and Hieraaetus#R.

Genus SpizaetusSpecies listFamily plate   Vieillot, 1816

Following several independent phylogenetic studies#R#R#R, former monotypic genera Oroaetus and Spizastur now incorporated in this genus, and Asian hawk-eagles, previously placed in Spizaetus, are not close to latter and are transferred to resurrected genus Nisaetus#R.

Genus IctinaetusSpecies listFamily plate   Blyth, 1843

Affinities uncertain. Some molecular studies indicate that this genus is member of a clade that includes also Afrotropical Lophaetus and the Eurasian spotted eagles now placed in Clanga (see below)#R; other molecular studies, however, suggest that it is a rather distantly related sister of Asian Nisaetus#R. Further research required.

Genus LophaetusSpecies listFamily plate   Kaup, 1847

Recent molecular study indicated that this monotypic genus is sister to Clanga#R. Has previously been thought to be closest to Spizaetus (sensu lato).

Genus ClangaSpecies listFamily plate   Adamowicz, 1858

Previously included within Aquila, but recent phylogenetic study found it to fall outside that clade, as sister to Lophaetus or perhaps even congeneric#R. Recently proposed Aquiloides is a junior synonym#R.

Genus AquilaSpecies listFamily plate   Brisson, 1760

Several recent phylogenetic studies have led to extensive reorganization of this genus, most notably in removal of species now placed in Clanga, and in redefining of limits with Hieraaetus (which see)#R#R#R#R.

Genus HieraaetusSpecies listFamily plate   Kaup, 1844

Some systematists favour merging this genus into Aquila#R. Recent molecular study, however, indicated that two distinct lineages are involved, the smaller species forming a separate clade; the five species currently placed in this genus are closely related#R. Composition of these two genera has recently been reassessed and modified on the basis of several phylogenetic studies#R#R#R#R.

Genus KaupifalcoSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1854

Recent molecular appraisal of all buteonine genera indicated that Kaupifalco is sister to the goshawks in genera Melierax, Micronisus and Urotriorchis#R. Already linked with Melierax on basis of plumage, behaviour and egg-yolk colour.

Genus MelieraxSpecies listFamily plate   G. R. Gray, 1840

Sometimes treated as incorporating Micronisus. The two may be closely related to Urotriorchis, with Kaupifalco as sister to the three#R.

Genus MicronisusSpecies listFamily plate   G. R. Gray, 1840

In the past, thought perhaps closely related to Accipiter. Recent study, however, indicates that it is closest to Melierax, and sometimes subsumed within latter; these two genera may be closely related to Urotriorchis, with Kaupifalco as sister to the three#R.

Genus HarpagusSpecies listFamily plate   Vigors, 1824

Distinctive, with no very close allies. May be closest to Circus, Accipiter and perhaps Buteo#R. Some similarities to Aviceda. Formerly thought to belong in same subgroup as Elanus.

Genus CircusSpecies listFamily plate   Lacépède, 1799

Recent molecular analyses indicate that this genus may be embedded in Accipiter#R#R.

Genus AccipiterSpecies listFamily plate   Brisson, 1760
Genus ErythrotriorchisSpecies listFamily plate   Sharpe, 1875

Traditionally linked with Accipiter, and has sometimes been merged into it; a close relationship of these genera was strongly supported by a recent phylogenetic study using DNA sequences#R, which also placed Megatriorchis with Accipiter but in a different clade from present genus; the same study firmly rejected a proposed old endemic Australasian clade consisting of Erythrotriorchis and Megatriorchis with four other species-poor Australo-Papuan genera, namely Hamirostra, Lophoictinia, Henicopernis and Harpyopsis.

Genus MegatriorchisSpecies listFamily plate   Salvadori & D’Albertis, 1876

Traditionally linked with Accipiter, and has sometimes been merged into it; a close relationship of these genera was strongly supported by a recent phylogenetic study using DNA sequences#R, which also placed Erythrotriorchis with Accipiter but in a different clade from present genus (see also Erythrotriorchis, above).

Genus UrotriorchisSpecies listFamily plate   Sharpe, 1874

Traditionally placed close to Accipiter, or even merged therein; recent molecular appraisal indicates that Urotriorchis forms a clade with Melierax and Micronisus, with Kaupifalco as sister to these three#R.

Genus HaliaeetusSpecies listFamily plate   Savigny, 1809
Genus IcthyophagaSpecies listFamily plate   Lesson, 1843

Alternative spelling Ichthyophaga often used, but present spelling selected by First Reviser#R.

Genus HaliasturSpecies listFamily plate   Selby, 1840

Subsumed within Milvus by some authors, but differs in plumage, voice and behaviour.

Genus MilvusSpecies listFamily plate   Lacépède, 1799
Genus BusarellusSpecies listFamily plate   Lesson, 1843

Traditionally considered to be allied to Buteogallus and Parabuteo, but morphological evidence#R suggests closer relationship to a group of largely Old World genera (Milvus, Haliastur, Icthyophaga, Haliaeetus) than to the New World genera; this relationship supported by recent genetic studies#R#R.

Genus GeranospizaSpecies listFamily plate   Kaup, 1847

Probably allied to Neotropical “sub-buteonines”, rather than Afrotropical Polyboroides, but found in recent study to be convergent with latter#R. Name Ischnosceles used in past, but, although described a few years earlier than Geranospiza, it is best regarded as a forgotten name.

Genus ButasturSpecies listFamily plate   Hodgson, 1843
Genus IctiniaSpecies listFamily plate   Vieillot, 1816

No clear affinities to other genera.

Genus RostrhamusSpecies listFamily plate   Lesson, 1830

Highly specialized, with no clear taxonomic affinities to other genera. Recent studies suggested that it may be sister to Geranospiza, but with poor support#R; one study indicated that it belonged to a clade also containing Busarellus#R.

Genus HelicolestesSpecies listFamily plate   Bangs & T. E. Penard, 1918

Subsumed within Rostrhamus by most recent authors, but hamatus shows marked differences in proportions and shape (especially in flight), style of flight, calls, display and habitat.

Genus RupornisSpecies listFamily plate   Kaup, 1844

Normally included within Buteo (which see), or alternatively in Asturina, but recently resurrected for magnirostris, which was found to be basal to all buteos#R#R#R.

Genus ParabuteoSpecies listFamily plate   Ridgway, 1874

Genetic data#R#R#R#R suggest that Parabuteo may be sister to Buteo and that it lies outside main group of true buteos.

Genus CryptoleucopteryxSpecies listFamily plate   Raposo do Amaral et al., 2009

Recently erected#R in order to recognize plumage combination unique among buteonine hawks: overall dark grey plumage, black tail with single white medial band, and white underwings-coverts.

Genus ButeogallusSpecies listFamily plate   Lesson, 1830

Incorporates Harpyhaliaetus, Heterospizias and Urubitinga.

Genus MorphnarchusSpecies listFamily plate   Ridgway, 1920
Genus GeranoaetusSpecies listFamily plate   Kaup, 1844

Name Tachytriorchis sometimes used, but Geranoaetus has priority#R.

Genus PseudasturSpecies listFamily plate   G. R. Gray, 1849

Previously subsumed within Leucopternis, but recent analysis indicates that it merits recognition for the three species listed below#R. Both genera, however, sometimes merged into Buteo.

Genus LeucopternisSpecies listFamily plate   Kaup, 1847

Has sometimes been incorporated within Buteo. Recent phylogenetic analyses suggested that only the three species listed below belong in Leucopternis#R#R.

Genus ButeoSpecies listFamily plate   Lacépède, 1799

Previously incorporated several other genera, including e.g. Rupornis, Morphnarchus, Pseudastur, as well as Leucopternis and Buteogallus. Present arrangement based largely on recent molecular studies#R#R#R, but further modification likely.

Order Coliiformes
Family Coliidae (Mousebirds)Family species listFamily plate
Genus ColiusSpecies listFamily plate   Brisson, 1760
Genus UrocoliusSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1854

Often merged into Colius.

Order Leptosomiformes
Family Leptosomidae (Cuckoo Roller)Family species listFamily plate
Genus LeptosomusSpecies listFamily plate   Vieillot, 1816

No known close relatives. In the past, considered to belong within Coraciidae, where typically awarded its own separate subfamily, or placed in its own family close to Coraciidae and Brachypteraciidae. Recent molecular studies suggest that Leptosomus is sister to a large clade which contains Coraciiformes, Trogoniformes and Piciformes, but within which it is distant from Coraciidae and Brachypteraciidae#R; or that it may be sister to Strigidae, Falconidae or Trogoniformes#R#R#R.

Order Trogoniformes
Family Trogonidae (Trogons)Family species listFamily plate
Genus ApalodermaSpecies listFamily plate   Swainson, 1833

Incorporates monospecific genus Heterotrogon.

Genus ApalharpactesSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1854

Name sometimes erroneously emended to Hapalarpactes. Previously subsumed within Harpactes; both species differ, however, in plumage coloration and in having a red bill, as well as being the only Asian trogons with metallic tones in plumage, and at least one (A. mackloti) has song quite unlike that of any other trogonid; recent molecular study indicated that Apalharpactes is a relictual lineage only distantly related to other trogons#R.

Genus HarpactesSpecies listFamily plate   Swainson, 1833

Includes Duvaucelius.

Genus PharomachrusSpecies listFamily plate   de la Llave, 1832

Sometimes incorporates Euptilotis.

Genus EuptilotisSpecies listFamily plate   Gould, 1858

Sometimes merged into Pharomachrus. Probably most closely related to Priotelus and Temnotrogon.

Genus PriotelusSpecies listFamily plate   G. R. Gray, 1840
Genus TemnotrogonSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1854

Often included within Priotelus, but differs significantly in bill pattern, plumage coloration and some morphological features.

Genus TrogonSpecies listFamily plate   Brisson, 1760

Incorporates Chrysotrogon.

Order Bucerotiformes
Family Bucerotidae (Hornbills)Family species listFamily plate

Treatment of this family here is based largely on findings of recent comprehensive molecular phylogenetic analysis#R#R.

Genus BucorvusSpecies listFamily plate   Lesson, 1830
Genus LophocerosSpecies listFamily plate   Ehrenberg, 1833

Usually merged into Tockus, within which often treated as a subgenus. Incorporates Rhynchaceros.

Genus TockusSpecies listFamily plate   Lesson, 1830
Genus BerenicornisSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1850

Often subsumed within Aceros, but closer to Horizocerus (formerly Tropicranus)#R.

Genus HorizocerusSpecies listFamily plate   Oberholser, 1899

Replacement for Tropicranus, having date priority over latter#R. Often merged into Tockus, or occasionally Berenicornis, but appears to be sufficiently distinct in behaviour and voice, as well as in some aspects of morphology, to merit separate treatment.

Genus CeratogymnaSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1854
Genus BycanistesSpecies listFamily plate   Cabanis & Heine, 1860

Previously subsumed within Ceratogymna, but genetic evidence supports separate generic treatment for the following smaller species.

Genus RhinoplaxSpecies listFamily plate   Gloger, 1841

Often subsumed within Buceros, but differs clearly in morphology, and in unique hooting call ending in loud cackle. Recent molecular study found Rhinoplax to be sister to Buceros#R, but it is retained owing to its extreme vocal and morphological divergence#R.

Genus BucerosSpecies listFamily plate   Linnaeus, 1758
Genus AnorrhinusSpecies listFamily plate   Reichenbach, 1849

Includes Ptilolaemus.

Genus OcycerosSpecies listFamily plate   A. O. Hume, 1873

Previously synonymized with African Tockus, but differs in feeding behaviour at nest. In recent comprehensive molecular phylogeny#R, mtDNA tree indicated that two taxa presently placed in Ocyceros (griseus, gingalensis) form a clade with Anthracoceros malayanus, with O. birostris divergent; as birostris is type species of Ocyceros, griseus and gingalensis would have to be moved to Anthracoceros or placed with malayanus in separate genus. Here, genera Ocyceros and Anthracoceros are maintained in traditional format, but further molecular study is needed in order to resolve their evolutionary relationships.

Genus AnthracocerosSpecies listFamily plate   Reichenbach, 1849

See under genus Ocyceros (above).

Genus AcerosSpecies listFamily plate   Hodgson, 1844

Has sometimes been considered to incorporate Rhyticeros. Authorship previously attributed to J. E. Gray#R.

Genus RhabdotorrhinusSpecies listFamily plate   A. B. Meyer & Wiglesworth, 1895

Until recently included within Rhyticeros or Aceros.

Genus PenelopidesSpecies listFamily plate   Reichenbach, 1849
Genus RhyticerosSpecies listFamily plate   Reichenbach, 1849

Sometimes merged into Aceros.

Family Upupidae (Hoopoes)Family species listFamily plate
Genus UpupaSpecies listFamily plate   Linnaeus, 1758
Family Phoeniculidae (Woodhoopoes)Family species listFamily plate
Genus PhoeniculusSpecies listFamily plate   Jarocki, 1821
Genus RhinopomastusSpecies listFamily plate   Jardine, 1828

Often merged into Phoeniculus.

Order Coraciiformes
Family Meropidae (Bee-eaters)Family species listFamily plate
Genus NyctyornisSpecies listFamily plate   Jardine & Selby, 1830

Recent molecular study found this genus to be sister to all other bee-eaters#R.

Genus MeropogonSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1850
Genus MeropsSpecies listFamily plate   Linnaeus, 1758

Incorporates Melittophagus, Bombylonax, Aerops, Dicrocercus and Meropiscus.

Family Coraciidae (Rollers)Family species listFamily plate
Genus CoraciasSpecies listFamily plate   Linnaeus, 1758
Genus EurystomusSpecies listFamily plate   Vieillot, 1816
Family Brachypteraciidae (Ground-rollers)Family species listFamily plate
Genus BrachypteraciasSpecies listFamily plate   Lafresnaye, 1834
Genus GeobiastesSpecies listFamily plate   Sharpe, 1871

Previously subsumed within Brachypteracias, but differs genetically#R, as well as in morphology and behaviour. Sister to Uratelornis#R.

Genus UratelornisSpecies listFamily plate   Rothschild, 1895

Sister to Geobiastes#R.

Genus AtelornisSpecies listFamily plate   Pucheran, 1846
Family Todidae (Todies)Family species listFamily plate
Genus TodusSpecies listFamily plate   Brisson, 1760

Appears to be closest to momotid genera Hylomanes and Baryphthengus, all perhaps having a common ancestor#R#R #R.

Family Momotidae (Motmots)Family species listFamily plate
Genus HylomanesSpecies listFamily plate   M. H. C. Lichtenstein, 1839

Appears to be close to Baryphthengus and also to tody genus Todus, all perhaps having a common ancestor#R#R #R.

Genus AspathaSpecies listFamily plate   Sharpe, 1892
Genus MomotusSpecies listFamily plate   Brisson, 1760
Genus BaryphthengusSpecies listFamily plate   Cabanis & Heine, 1859

Appears to be close to Hylomanes and to tody genus Todus, all perhaps having a common ancestor#R#R #R.

Genus ElectronSpecies listFamily plate   Gistel, 1848
Genus EumomotaSpecies listFamily plate   P. L. Sclater, 1858
Family Alcedinidae (Kingfishers)Family species listFamily plate
Subfamily Alcedininae
Genus IspidinaSpecies listFamily plate   Kaup, 1848

Sometimes merged into Ceyx or Corythornis; incorporates Myioceyx. Relationships to other kingfisher clades uncertain#R.

Genus CorythornisSpecies listFamily plate   Kaup, 1848
Genus CeyxSpecies listFamily plate   Lacépède, 1799
Genus AlcedoSpecies listFamily plate   Linnaeus, 1758
Subfamily Cerylinae
Genus MegaceryleSpecies listFamily plate   Kaup, 1848

Sometimes subsumed within Ceryle, but both phylogenetic analysis#R and osteological evidence#R support recognition of separate genera.

Genus CeryleSpecies listFamily plate   Boie, 1828

Distinctive, with no close relatives; some authors have placed some or all members of Megaceryle in present genus, but both phylogenetic data#R and osteological evidence#R support recognition of separate genera.

Genus ChloroceryleSpecies listFamily plate   Kaup, 1848
Subfamily Halcyoninae
Genus LacedoSpecies listFamily plate   Reichenbach, 1851

Has been thought perhaps an early offshoot of Dacelo lineage, with some resemblance to Tanysiptera.

Genus PelargopsisSpecies listFamily plate   Gloger, 1841

Sometimes merged into Halcyon; in the past, genus name given as Ramphalcyon, but Pelargopsis has priority.

Genus HalcyonSpecies listFamily plate   Swainson, 1821

Includes Entomothera and Chelicutia.

Genus CaridonaxSpecies listFamily plate   Cabanis & Heine, 1860

Sometimes subsumed within Halcyon.

Genus ActenoidesSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1850

Sometimes merged into Halcyon; incorporates Dacelalcyon and Monachalcyon.

Genus SymaSpecies listFamily plate   Lesson, 1827

Sometimes merged into Halcyon, or occasionally even into Todiramphus.

Genus TodiramphusSpecies listFamily plate   Lesson, 1827

Often merged into Halcyon.

Genus CitturaSpecies listFamily plate   Kaup, 1848

Distinctive, with no close relatives.

Genus TanysipteraSpecies listFamily plate   Vigors, 1825

Incorporates Uralcyon.

Genus MelidoraSpecies listFamily plate   Lesson, 1830
Genus DaceloSpecies listFamily plate   Leach, 1815

Includes Capricia and Sauromarptis, and sometimes Clytoceyx.

Genus ClytoceyxSpecies listFamily plate   Sharpe, 1880

Very close to Dacelo and sometimes subsumed within it#R. Possibly related also to Melidora.

Order Piciformes
Family Galbulidae (Jacamars)Family species listFamily plate
Genus GalbalcyrhynchusSpecies listFamily plate   Des Murs, 1845
Genus BrachygalbaSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1854
Genus JacamaralcyonSpecies listFamily plate   Lesson, 1830

Close to Brachygalba, particularly B. lugubris, but segregated by foot morphology, elongated head feathers and gregarious behaviour.

Genus GalbulaSpecies listFamily plate   Brisson, 1760

Includes Urogalba.

Genus JacameropsSpecies listFamily plate   Lesson, 1830

Formerly considered sufficiently distinct to be placed in monotypic subfamily Jacameropinae, but this no longer considered warranted.

Family Bucconidae (Puffbirds)Family species listFamily plate
Genus NotharchusSpecies listFamily plate   Cabanis & Heine, 1863

In the past was sometimes synonymized with Bucco.

Genus CyphosSpecies listFamily plate   Spix, 1824

Usually merged into Bucco. Generic name previously listed as Argicus, but Cyphos has priority (and is not excluded by homonymy, as previously thought)#R.

Genus NystactesSpecies listFamily plate   Gloger, 1827

Usually merged into Bucco.

Genus BuccoSpecies listFamily plate   Brisson, 1760
Genus NystalusSpecies listFamily plate   Cabanis & Heine, 1863
Genus HypnelusSpecies listFamily plate   Cabanis & Heine, 1863
Genus MalacoptilaSpecies listFamily plate   G. R. Gray, 1841
Genus MicromonachaSpecies listFamily plate   P. L. Sclater, 1881
Genus NonnulaSpecies listFamily plate   P. L. Sclater, 1854
Genus HapaloptilaSpecies listFamily plate   P. L. Sclater, 1881
Genus MonasaSpecies listFamily plate   Vieillot, 1816
Genus ChelidopteraSpecies listFamily plate   Gould, 1837
Family Ramphastidae (Toucans)Family species listFamily plate
Genus RamphastosSpecies listFamily plate   Linnaeus, 1758

Genetic data indicate that Ramphastos is basal to all other genera in this family#R#R.

Genus AulacorhynchusSpecies listFamily plate   Gould, 1835

Molecular analyses suggest that this genus is sister to Andigena and Selenidera#R#R.

Genus AndigenaSpecies listFamily plate   Gould, 1851

Several studies found this genus and Selenidera to be sister-genera#R#R#R, with Aulacorhynchus sister to the two#R#R.

Genus SelenideraSpecies listFamily plate   Gould, 1837

Several studies found this genus and Andigena to be sister-genera#R#R#R, with Aulacorhynchus sister to the two#R#R.

Genus PteroglossusSpecies listFamily plate   Illiger, 1811

Incorporates Baillonius and Beauharnaisius.

Family Capitonidae (New World Barbets)Family species listFamily plate

Traditionally, all barbets were lumped into a single family under this name. In recent decades, increasing weight of evidence #R#R#R#R indicates: separate families should be recognized for species from America (Capitonidae), Asia (Megalaimidae) and Africa (Lybiidae); American barbets further divisible by recognition of aberrant family Semnornithidae; and American barbets are closer to toucans than to Old World barbets.

Genus CapitoSpecies listFamily plate   Vieillot, 1816
Genus EubuccoSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1850
Family Semnornithidae (Prong-billed Barbets)Family species listFamily plate

Traditionally lumped into Capitonidae (which see). Genetic data suggest inconclusively that it may be sister to Ramphastidae#R#R or perhaps to both Ramphastidae and Capitonidae#R#R.

Genus SemnornisSpecies listFamily plate   Richmond, 1900
Family Megalaimidae (Asian Barbets)Family species listFamily plate

Traditionally lumped into Capitonidae (which see).

Subfamily Caloramphinae
Genus CaloramphusSpecies listFamily plate   Lesson, 1839

Relationships unclear. Has been considered close to African Gymnobucco on basis of plumage, voice and colonial nesting, but genetic evidence indicates that these similarites are convergent, and that the two genera are not closely related#R. Original spelling has often been erroneously emended to Calorhamphus.

Subfamily Megalaiminae
Genus PsilopogonSpecies listFamily plate   S. Müller, 1836

Replaces Megalaima; recent study found Psilopogon to be nested within Megalaima#R and former has priority. Incorporates Xantholaema and Mesobucco.

Family Lybiidae (African Barbets)Family species listFamily plate

Traditionally lumped into Capitonidae (which see).

Subfamily Trachyphoninae
Genus TrachyphonusSpecies listFamily plate   Ranzani, 1821

Genetic data place this as basal to all other African barbets#R. Previous studies suggested it was: basal to all barbets, on morphological grounds#R; or, using cytochrome b, basal to New World Capitonidae and Ramphastidae#R.

Subfamily Lybiinae

Genetic data subdivide these taxa into three clades#R: Buccanodon, Gymnobucco and Stactolaema (with Cryptolybia); Pogoniulus; and Tricholaema and Lybius (with Pogonornis); in same study, Trachylaemus was included within Trachyphonus, in subfamily Trachyphoninae.

Genus BuccanodonSpecies listFamily plate   G. R. Gray#R, 1855

Has been thought to be related both to Pogoniulus and to Tricholaema; larger than former, similar in size to latter but lacks bill “teeth”, and vocally distinct from both; genetic data suggest not closely related to either#R.

Genus CryptolybiaSpecies listFamily plate   Clancey, 1979

Very similar to Stactolaema, but some minor differences in morphology, plumage and some vocalizations.

Genus GymnobuccoSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1850

Has been considered close to Asian Caloramphus on basis of plumage, voice and colonial nesting, but genetic evidence indicates that these similarites are convergent, and that the two genera are not closely related#R.

Genus StactolaemaSpecies listFamily plate   C. H. T. Marshall & G. F. L. Marshall, 1870

Includes Smilorhis.

Genus PogoniulusSpecies listFamily plate   Lafresnaye, 1842

Includes Viridibucco.

Genus TricholaemaSpecies listFamily plate   J. P. Verreaux & J. B. É. Verreaux, 1855
Genus LybiusSpecies listFamily plate   Hermann, 1783
Genus PogonornisSpecies listFamily plate   Billberg, 1828

Has commonly been included within Lybius, but such treatment renders latter genus paraphyletic#R.

Genus TrachylaemusSpecies listFamily plate   Reichenow, 1891

Sometimes included within Trachyphonus; genetic data support its placement there#R, although plumage, behaviour and vocalizations suggest it is distinct#R.

Family Indicatoridae (Honeyguides)Family species listFamily plate
Genus ProdotiscusSpecies listFamily plate   Sundevall, 1850
Genus MelignomonSpecies listFamily plate   Reichenow, 1898
Genus IndicatorSpecies listFamily plate   Stephens, 1815
Genus MelichneutesSpecies listFamily plate   Reichenow, 1910

Closely related to Indicator.

Family Picidae (Woodpeckers)Family species listFamily plate
Subfamily Jynginae
Genus JynxSpecies listFamily plate   Linnaeus, 1758
Subfamily Picumninae
Genus VerreauxiaSpecies listFamily plate   Hartlaub, 1857

Previously subsumed within Sasia, but morphologically and genetically distinct#R.

Genus SasiaSpecies listFamily plate   Hodgson, 1837
Genus PicumnusSpecies listFamily plate   Temminck, 1825

Includes Vivia.

Subfamily Picinae
Tribe Nesoctitini
Genus NesoctitesSpecies listFamily plate   Hargitt, 1890

May merit its own monospecific subfamily#R. No obvious close relatives. Feather preserved in amber 15–20 million years old (oldest picid fossil), found in Dominican Republic, was considered, on basis of its structure, to belong to a very close relative of modern-day Nesoctites#R.

Tribe Hemicircini
Genus HemicircusSpecies listFamily plate   Swainson, 1837

Molecular data indicate that this genus is sister to all other genera in subfamily Picinae#R#R, such a relationship being supported by recent cladistic analysis of 69 morphological and behavioural characters#R.

Tribe Campephilini
Genus CampephilusSpecies listFamily plate   G. R. Gray, 1840

Incorporates Phloeoceastes. Recent molecular studies indicate that Campephilus is related to Asian genera Blythipicus and Chrysocolaptes (latter including Reinwardtipicus)#R#R#R, and that its nuclear genome is probably a mix of two unrelated lineages (with Sphyrapicus/Melanerpes)#R.

Genus BlythipicusSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1854

Closely related to Chrysocolaptes.

Genus ChrysocolaptesSpecies listFamily plate   Blyth, 1843

Incorporates Reinwardtipicus#R. Closely related to Blythipicus.

Tribe Picini
Genus DinopiumSpecies listFamily plate   Rafinesque, 1814
Genus GecinulusSpecies listFamily plate   Blyth, 1845

Apparently forms a clade of Indomalayan taxa together with Dinopium, Micropternus and Meiglyptes#R.

Genus MicropternusSpecies listFamily plate   Blyth, 1845

In the past the sole species was usually placed alone in present genus, but was subsequently included in Celeus on grounds of plumage pattern, structure, behaviour and voice#R, although not very closely related to other, Neotropical species of latter genus and believed possibly closer to Picus; recent molecular studies, however, found it to belong in separate clade with SE Asian Meiglyptes, these two genera being sister to S & SE Asian Dinopium#R.

Genus MeiglyptesSpecies listFamily plate   Swainson, 1837
Genus ChrysophlegmaSpecies listFamily plate   Gould, 1850

Previously included in Picus; molecular analysis#R indicates that these species represent a different clade, closer to Meiglyptes than to Picus, a finding supported by more recent data#R.

Genus GeocolaptesSpecies listFamily plate   Swainson, 1832

Probably closest to Campethera#R#R#R; recent molecular investigation found this taxon to form a clade with the two Campethera species (nivosa and caroli) sampled#R.

Genus CampetheraSpecies listFamily plate   G. R. Gray, 1841
Genus PicusSpecies listFamily plate   Linnaeus, 1758

Previously included Chrysophlegma, which was found in recent molecular analyses to represent a clearly divergent, separate clade#R (see above).

Genus PiculusSpecies listFamily plate   Spix, 1824

Previously included several additional species now placed in closely related Colaptes (see below).

Genus ColaptesSpecies listFamily plate   Vigors, 1825

Incorporates Chrysoptilus and Nesoceleus. Also includes several species formerly placed in Piculus, as that previous arrangement renders both Piculus and Colaptes paraphyletic#R#R.

Genus CeleusSpecies listFamily plate   Boie, 1831
Genus HylatomusSpecies listFamily plate   S. F. Baird, 1858

Recent molecular analysis#R found that Old World Dryocopus and Mulleripicus were closer to each other than either is to the New World Dryocopus, prompting the merging of all in Dryocopus. With retention here of Mulleripicus, genus Hylatomus is resurrected for the New World taxa hitherto placed in Dryocopus.

Genus MulleripicusSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1854

Recent molecular analysis#R found that Old World Dryocopus and Mulleripicus were closer to each other than either is to the New World Dryocopus, prompting the merging of all in Dryocopus. With retention here of Mulleripicus, genus Hylatomus is resurrected for the New World taxa hitherto placed in Dryocopus.

Genus DryocopusSpecies listFamily plate   Boie, 1826

Recent molecular analysis#R found that Old World Dryocopus and Mulleripicus were closer to each other than either is to the New World Dryocopus, prompting the merging of all in Dryocopus. With retention here of Mulleripicus, genus Hylatomus is resurrected for the New World taxa hitherto placed in Dryocopus.

Tribe Melanerpini
Genus SphyrapicusSpecies listFamily plate   S. F. Baird, 1858

Closely related to Xiphidiopicus and Melanerpes#R.

Genus XiphidiopicusSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1854

Molecular data suggest that this genus is sister to Melanerpes, and is close also to Sphyrapicus#R.

Genus MelanerpesSpecies listFamily plate   Swainson, 1832

Incorporates Tripsurus, and the four monotypic genera Leuconerpes, Asyndesmus, Linneopicus and Trichopicus; barred species sometimes separated in Centurus.

Genus PicoidesSpecies listFamily plate   Lacépède, 1799

Previously included Leiopicus, some Dryobates species, and sometimes Dendrocopos. Incorporates Yungipicus.

Genus DendropicosSpecies listFamily plate   Malherbe, 1849

Incorporates Thripias, Chloropicus and Mesopicos, and also, tentatively, Ipophilus, recent molecular analyses having indicated that no justification exists for maintaining these recently revived genera#R. Also includes Polipicus.

Genus LeiopicusSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1854

Previously subsumed within Dendrocopos or Picoides. Recently revived following findings of recent molecular studies that the following three species form a separate and distinct clade#R#R.

Genus DryobatesSpecies listFamily plate   Boie, 1826

Various DNA studies have indicated that many species previously included in Picoides/Dendrocopos form distinct clades, separate from others in those genera, a finding strongly supported by the most recent analyses#R. Genus Dryobates is revived for some of these species; Leuconotopicus and Veniliornis may also be part of this assemblage, although here retained as separate clades.

Genus LeuconotopicusSpecies listFamily plate   Malherbe, 1845

Recent molecular analyses#R found that all species previously placed in Veniliornis could be united with most Picoides and three (or four) Dendrocopos in a greatly expanded Dryobates; an alternative option, with the advantage of avoiding polyphyletic genera, was to split this large group into three genera, namely Dryobates, Leuconotopicus and Veniliornis, as herein.

Genus VeniliornisSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1854

Restricted to the New World tropics. Probably closest to Dendrocopos; molecular phylogenetic study#R indicated that present genus and Picoides are reciprocally paraphyletic, and that, contrary to some earlier beliefs, present genus is not closely related to Piculus.

Genus DendrocoposSpecies listFamily plate   Koch, 1816

Sometimes merged into Picoides. Incorporates monotypic genera Hypopicus and Sapheopipo.

Order Cariamiformes
Family Cariamidae (Seriemas)Family species listFamily plate
Genus CariamaSpecies listFamily plate   Brisson, 1760

Perhaps better merged with Chunga.

Genus ChungaSpecies listFamily plate   Hartlaub, 1860

Perhaps better merged into Cariama.

Order Falconiformes
Family Falconidae (Falcons, Caracaras)Family species listFamily plate
Subfamily Herpetotherinae
Genus HerpetotheresSpecies listFamily plate   Vieillot, 1817

Distinctive genus, closest to Micrastur#R#R#R; sometimes awarded its own monotypic tribe or subfamily.

Genus MicrasturSpecies listFamily plate   G. R. Gray, 1841

Distinctive genus, closest to Herpetotheres#R#R#R; specialized for life in dense forest, having long tail and short wings (for manoeuvrability), large ear openings and facial ruff (for hunting by sound).

Subfamily Falconinae
Tribe Polyborini
Genus SpiziapteryxSpecies listFamily plate   Kaup, 1852

Has been associated with Old World Polihierax or, alternatively, with Neotropical Micrastur, Herpetotheres and caracaras; sometimes placed in separate subfamily (or even family#R) alongside Herpetotheres alone. Although morphological data suggested that Spiziapteryx was closest to falcons (Falco and relatives)#R, genetic data indicate that it is closest to the caracaras#R#R; recent DNA study suggested that it belongs with latter in Polyborini#R.

Genus CaracaraSpecies listFamily plate   Merrem, 1826

Generally thought to be closely related to Phalcoboenus, and less closely to Milvago, both of which are sometimes included within present genus. Genus previously listed as Polyborus, but this name is unidentifiable#R#R.

Genus IbycterSpecies listFamily plate   Vieillot, 1816

Previously included in Daptrius, but differs significantly in syringeal morphology, habitat and behaviour, and distinct genetically, being closer to Caracara#R#R#R#R.

Genus PhalcoboenusSpecies listFamily plate   d’Orbigny, 1834

Closely related to Caracara and in past sometimes merged therein.

Genus MilvagoSpecies listFamily plate   Spix, 1824

Has occasionally been included in Caracara; together with Daptrius, the closest of caracara genera to Falco. Previously included Phalcoboenus chimango (which see).

Genus DaptriusSpecies listFamily plate   Vieillot, 1816

Previously included Ibycter, but the two differ significantly in syringeal morphology, habitat and behaviour, and are distinct genetically#R#R#R#R. Closest to Milvago.

Tribe Falconini
Genus MicrohieraxSpecies listFamily plate   Sharpe, 1874

Syringeal morphology suggests that this genus is closely related to Polihierax#R#R; apparently closest to Afrotropical Polihierax semitorquatus#R.

Genus PolihieraxSpecies listFamily plate   Kaup, 1847

Syringeal morphology suggests close relationship to Microhierax#R#R.

Genus FalcoSpecies listFamily plate   Linnaeus, 1758

Incoporates various older genera/subgenera, e.g. Cerchneis, Tinnunculus, Dissodectes, Aesalon, Nesierax, Hieracidea, Ieracidea, Gennaia, Hierofalco, Rhynchodon.

Order Psittaciformes
Family Strigopidae (New Zealand Parrots)Family species listFamily plate
Subfamily Strigopinae
Genus StrigopsSpecies listFamily plate   G. R. Gray, 1845

Highly distinctive genus#R, most closely related to Nestor, as confirmed by recent phylogenetic work#R#R. The two genera have variously been treated as separate tribes#R; subfamilies within Psittacidae#R or (as here) within Strigopidae#R#R; or even separate families#R. Although the family-group names based on these genera were both introduced in the same publication, the name Strigopidae has priority, as introduced at a higher taxonomic rank.

Subfamily Nestorinae
Genus NestorSpecies listFamily plate   Lesson, 1830

Sometimes treated as a separate family; see Strigops (above).

Family Cacatuidae (Cockatoos)Family species listFamily plate
Subfamily Nymphicinae
Genus NymphicusSpecies listFamily plate   Wagler, 1832

Relationships long debated; regarded by many authors as diminutive cockatoo on basis of morphology; during period 1963–1975 several workers put forward convincing case for its grouping among parrots of Platycercini, but some morphological and genetic studies (and particularly results of isozyme electrophoresis) indicated close relationship to the cockatoos, probably meriting separation in monotypic subfamily or tribe within Cacatuidae. Recent multi-locus molecular phylogeny supports this, finding that present genus is sole member of a third major (and basal) clade within the cockatoos, subfamily Nymphicinae#R. Leptolophus is a junior synonym of Nymphicus.

Subfamily Calyptorhynchinae
Genus CalyptorhynchusSpecies listFamily plate   Desmarest, 1826
Genus ZandaSpecies listFamily plate   Mathews, 1913

Previously included in Calyptorhynchus, but DNA study indicates that recognition is warranted#R.

Subfamily Cacatuinae
Tribe Microglossini
Genus ProboscigerSpecies listFamily plate   Kuhl, 1820

Previously included in subfamily Calyptorhynchinae, but recent molecular phylogeny places this genus in Cacatuinae#R. Tribal name based on junior synonym Microglossus; Proboscigerini is a junior synonym of Microglossini#R#R.

Tribe Cacatuini
Genus CallocephalonSpecies listFamily plate   Lesson, 1837

Callocorydon is a junior synonym. Recent multi-locus molecular study found present genus and Eolophus to be sister-taxa, perhaps better merged (Callocephalon has priority)#R.

Genus EolophusSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1854

Sometimes included in Cacatua, but recognized on basis of osteological and morphological criteria, supported by behavioural and biochemical studies. May belong in Callocephalon (see above).

Genus CacatuaSpecies listFamily plate   Vieillot, 1817

Alternative name Kakatoe now obsolete and officially suppressed#R. Includes Lophochroa, but see under C. leadbeateri, below.

Family Psittacidae (Parrots)Family species listFamily plate

Recent reappraisal of higher taxonomy of parrots#R proposed arrangement into three superfamilies, here treated as families (Strigopidae, Cacatuidae, Psittacidae); same study split Psittacidae, as here defined, into three families, with additional recognition of Psittrichasidae (Psittrichas to Coracopsis, below) and Psittaculidae (Psephotus to Micropsitta, below); in present work, separation of these families considered to require further study and perhaps additional support. In the past, present family was often split into two, with recognition of family Loriidae; at the other extreme, it was sometimes considered to include all Psittaciformes.

Subfamily Psittacinae
Genus PsittacusSpecies listFamily plate   Linnaeus, 1758
Genus PoicephalusSpecies listFamily plate   Swainson, 1837
Subfamily Arinae
Genus TouitSpecies listFamily plate   G. R. Gray, 1855

Older genus name Pyrrhulopsis has been demonstrated to refer to species currently placed herein, but due to long and almost universal use of present genus name, as well as confusion generated surrounding use of Pyrrhulopsis (see Prosopeia), application has been filed with ICZN for suppression of name Pyrrhulopsis for purposes of priority and its conversion into an objective junior synonym of Touit#R#R.

Genus PsilopsiagonSpecies listFamily plate   Ridgway, 1912

Often included in Bolborhynchus. Genus Amoropsittaca subsumed within latter or within present genus.

Genus BolborhynchusSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1857

Some recent molecular studies indicated a sister relationship between Bolborhynchus lineola and Nannopsittaca#R#R, another study finding that Psilopsiagon was sister to these two genera#R; a different analysis suggested a sister relationship between Touit and Nannopsittaca (although Bolborhynchus was not sampled)#R.

Genus NannopsittacaSpecies listFamily plate   Ridgway, 1912

See under Genus Bolborhynchus, above.

Genus MyiopsittaSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1854

Recent molecular studies suggested that present genus and Brotogeris are sister taxa#R#R, a relationship supported by subsequent analyses#R#R.

Genus BrotogerisSpecies listFamily plate   Vigors, 1825

Sister to Myiopsitta (see above).

Genus PionopsittaSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1854

Previously included Pyrilia, but such arrangement found to be not monophyletic#R#R.

Genus TriclariaSpecies listFamily plate   Wagler, 1832
Genus PyriliaSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1856

Formerly listed as Gypopsitta, but present name has priority#R. Sister genus to Hapalopsittaca#R#R. Previously subsumed within Pionopsitta (see above), but the following seven medium-sized, short-tailed South American parrots together represent a separate group to which that genus is sister#R.

Genus HapalopsittacaSpecies listFamily plate   Ridgway, 1912

Sister genus to Pyrilia#R#R.

Genus PionusSpecies listFamily plate   Wagler, 1832
Genus GraydidascalusSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1854
Genus AlipiopsittaSpecies listFamily plate   Caparroz & Pacheco, 2006

Replacement for name Salvatoria, which has been shown to be preoccupied#R.

Genus AmazonaSpecies listFamily plate   Lesson, 1830

Incorporates Chrysotis. Genetic studies have indicated that relationships within present genus are not as traditionally believed; sequence of species in following list reflects recent findings#R#R.

Genus ForpusSpecies listFamily plate   Boie, 1858

Appears not to be closely related to any other genus#R.

Genus PionitesSpecies listFamily plate   Heine, 1890

Recent molecular studies indicate that this genus and Deroptyus are sister-taxa#R#R#R.

Genus DeroptyusSpecies listFamily plate   Wagler, 1832

Recent molecular studies indicate that this genus and Pionites are sister-taxa#R#R#R.

Genus PyrrhuraSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1856
Genus EnicognathusSpecies listFamily plate   G. R. Gray, 1840

Includes Microsittace.

Genus CyanoliseusSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1854
Genus AnodorhynchusSpecies listFamily plate   Spix, 1824
Genus RhynchopsittaSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1854
Genus EupsittulaSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1853

Previously synonymized with Aratinga, but DNA studies support separation#R#R.

Genus AratingaSpecies listFamily plate   Spix, 1824

Includes Nandayus; previously included also Eupsittula, Conuropsis, Guaruba and Psittacara.

Genus CyanopsittaSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1854

In the past commonly subsumed within Ara, but separated genetically#R.

Genus OrthopsittacaSpecies listFamily plate   Ridgway, 1912

Formerly subsumed within Ara, but differs in morphology, voice and behaviour.

Genus PrimoliusSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1857

Previously incorporated within Ara. Includes Propyrrhura as a junior synonym#R.

Genus AraSpecies listFamily plate   Lacépède, 1799

Formerly included Cyanopsitta, Orthopsitta, Primolius (including Propyrrhura) and Diopsittaca.

Genus LeptosittacaSpecies listFamily plate   Berlepsch & Stolzmann, 1894

Genetic data indicate that this taxon is part of a group that includes also Guaruba and Diopsittaca#R. Has sometimes been included within Aratinga.

Genus OgnorhynchusSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1857
Genus GuarubaSpecies listFamily plate   Lesson, 1830

Sometimes spelt as Guarouba, due to dual original spellings; present version selected by First Reviser#R. Often subsumed within Aratinga. Recent DNA studies indicate close relationship to Diopsittaca#R#R#R#R.

Genus DiopsittacaSpecies listFamily plate   Ridgway, 1912

Often subsumed within Ara. Recent DNA studies indicate sister relationship to Guaruba#R#R#R#R.

Genus PsittacaraSpecies listFamily plate   Vigors, 1825

Previously included within Aratinga, but differs genetically#R#R#R.

Subfamily Psittrichasinae
Genus PsittrichasSpecies listFamily plate   Lesson, 1831

Relationships uncertain and taxonomic position somewhat controversial; has been associated with Loriinae. Recent molecular study suggested that this genus shares a common ancestor with geographically distant Coracopsis#R, and these taxa have recently been suggested to form a separate family#R; Psittrichadinae is an alternative spelling#R#R. See also under Family Psittacidae.

Subfamily Coracopseinae
Genus CoracopsisSpecies listFamily plate   Wagler, 1832

Recent molecular study indicated that this genus shares a common ancestor with geographically distant Psittrichas#R.

Subfamily Platycercinae

This and all the taxa following below have recently been suggested to form a separate family#R. See also under Family Psittacidae.

Tribe Platycercini
Genus PsephotusSpecies listFamily plate   Gould, 1845

Commonly considered to include Psephotellus, but recent data show they are genetically distinct#R#R.

Genus NorthiellaSpecies listFamily plate   Mathews, 1912

Sometimes included in Psephotus.

Genus PsephotellusSpecies listFamily plate   Mathews, 1913

Commonly included within Psephotus, but recent data show they are genetically distinct#R#R.

Genus PurpureicephalusSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1854

Sometimes included within Platycercus.

Genus PlatycercusSpecies listFamily plate   Vigors, 1825

Sometimes considered to include Purpureicephalus. See also Eunymphicus, below.

Genus BarnardiusSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1854

Sometimes merged into Platycercus (e.g. recently#R).

Genus LathamusSpecies listFamily plate   Lesson, 1830
Genus ProsopeiaSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1854

Proposal to replace this name with older Pyrrhulopsis#R#R#R has been overturned, as that genus has been demonstrated to refer to species currently placed in Touit#R#R#R (which see). See also under Eunymphicus, below.

Genus EunymphicusSpecies listFamily plate   J. L. Peters, 1937

Closely related to Cyanoramphus, and sometimes subsumed within it; Prosopeia is sister to these two, and Platycercus may be the next closest to this clade#R.

Genus CyanoramphusSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1854

Molecular data indicate that this taxon is closest to Eunymphicus (see above).

Tribe Pezoporini
Genus PezoporusSpecies listFamily plate   Illiger, 1811

Includes Geopsittacus. Recent molecular study indicates that present genus is closely allied to Neopsephotus and Neophema, the three probably a sister-group to the core platycercines#R.

Genus NeopsephotusSpecies listFamily plate   Mathews, 1912

Often merged into Neophema, but biochemical data provide additional support for recognizing it. Recent molecular study indicates that present genus is closely allied to Pezoporus and Neophema, the three probably a sister-group to the core platycercines#R.

Genus NeophemaSpecies listFamily plate   Salvadori, 1891

Recent molecular study indicates that present genus is closely allied to Pezoporus and Neopsephotus, the three probably a sister-group to the core platycercines#R.

Subfamily Psittacellinae
Genus PsittacellaSpecies listFamily plate   Schlegel, 1871
Subfamily Loriinae
Tribe Loriini
Genus OreopsittacusSpecies listFamily plate   Salvadori, 1877
Genus CharmosynaSpecies listFamily plate   Wagler, 1832
Genus ViniSpecies listFamily plate   Lesson, 1833
Genus PhigysSpecies listFamily plate   G. R. Gray, 1870

Osteologically very similar to Vini and may not merit recognition.

Genus NeopsittacusSpecies listFamily plate   Salvadori, 1875
Genus GlossopsittaSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1854
Genus LoriusSpecies listFamily plate   Vigors, 1825

Formerly listed under later name Domicella, because the name Lorius Boddaert, 1783 was applicable to Eclectus; but Boddaert’s name (an emendation of Larius) was officially suppressed in 1970#R, leaving Vigors’s as the correct name for present genus.

Genus ChalcopsittaSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1850

Chalcopsittacus is an unjustified emendation#R.

Genus PseudeosSpecies listFamily plate   J. L. Peters, 1935
Genus PsitteutelesSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1854

Sometimes included within Trichoglossus.

Genus EosSpecies listFamily plate   Wagler, 1832

All members of this genus very closely related, forming a species-group.

Genus TrichoglossusSpecies listFamily plate   Stephens, 1826

Sometimes considered to include Psitteuteles. In past, authorship of present genus erroneously attributed to Vigors & Horsfield, 1827#R.

Tribe Melopsittacini
Genus MelopsittacusSpecies listFamily plate   Gould, 1840
Tribe Cyclopsittini
Genus PsittaculirostrisSpecies listFamily plate   J. E. Gray & G. R. Gray, 1859

Sometimes subsumed within Cyclopsitta (or Opopsitta).

Genus CyclopsittaSpecies listFamily plate   Reichenbach, 1850

Incorporates Opopsitta as a junior synonym#R; Psittaculirostris sometimes included in present genus.

Subfamily Agapornithinae
Genus BolbopsittacusSpecies listFamily plate   Salvadori, 1891
Genus LoriculusSpecies listFamily plate   Blyth, 1849
Genus AgapornisSpecies listFamily plate   Selby, 1836
Subfamily Psittaculinae
Tribe Polytelini
Genus PolytelisSpecies listFamily plate   Wagler, 1832

Recent molecular study suggested that this genus as currently constituted may be polyphyletic#R.

Genus AlisterusSpecies listFamily plate   Mathews, 1911

Has occasionally been lumped with Aprosmictus.

Genus AprosmictusSpecies listFamily plate   Gould, 1842

Sometimes incorporates Alisterus.

Tribe Psittaculini
Genus PrioniturusSpecies listFamily plate   Wagler, 1832
Genus EclectusSpecies listFamily plate   Wagler, 1832

Genus name formerly given as Lorius Boddaert, 1783, although original spelling, was “Larius”; this name (either spelling) officially suppressed in 1970, giving way to Eclectus for present species, and leaving genus name Lorius Vigors, 1825, available for “Domicella” lories#R.

Genus GeoffroyusSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1850

Occasionally merged into Psittinus.

Genus TanygnathusSpecies listFamily plate   Wagler, 1832

Recent study suggested that this genus might be embedded within Psittacula#R.

Genus PsittinusSpecies listFamily plate   Blyth, 1842

Probably closely related to Psittacula.

Genus PsittaculaSpecies listFamily plate   Cuvier, 1800

Recent study suggested that, as currently constituted, this genus may be polyphyletic and that Tanygnathus may be embedded within it#R.

Tribe Micropsittini
Genus MicropsittaSpecies listFamily plate   Lesson, 1831
Order Passeriformes
Family Acanthisittidae (New Zealand Wrens)Family species listFamily plate
Genus AcanthisittaSpecies listFamily plate   Lafresnaye, 1842

Genetic studies#R#R#R indicate that this monospecific genus is basal to all other passerines.

Genus XenicusSpecies listFamily plate   G. R. Gray, 1855
Family Pittidae (Pittas)Family species listFamily plate
Genus ErythropittaSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1854

Along with Hydrornis, previously included in Pitta, but genetic study#R suggests that recognition of three genera is more appropriate.

Genus HydrornisSpecies listFamily plate   Blyth, 1843

Along with Erythropitta, previously included in Pitta, but genetic study#R suggests that recognition of three genera is more appropriate.

Genus PittaSpecies listFamily plate   Vieillot, 1816

Previously incorporated genera Erythropitta and Hydrornis, but genetic study#R suggests that recognition of three genera is more appropriate.

Family Philepittidae (Asities)Family species listFamily plate
Genus PhilepittaSpecies listFamily plate   I. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1838
Genus NeodrepanisSpecies listFamily plate   Sharpe, 1875
Family Eurylaimidae (Typical Broadbills)Family species listFamily plate
Genus PseudocalyptomenaSpecies listFamily plate   Rothschild, 1909
Genus PsarisomusSpecies listFamily plate   Swainson, 1837
Genus CorydonSpecies listFamily plate   Lesson, 1828
Genus CymbirhynchusSpecies listFamily plate   Vigors, 1830

Authorship disputed and sometimes attributed to Vigors & Horsfield#R#R, but external evidence (including that of Horsfield) supports use of current version#R.

Genus SerilophusSpecies listFamily plate   Swainson, 1837
Genus EurylaimusSpecies listFamily plate   Horsfield, 1821
Genus SarcophanopsSpecies listFamily plate   Gould, 1877

Often merged into Eurylaimus, but significant morphological differences. Authorship and date disputed#R#R.

Family Sapayoidae (Sapayoa)Family species listFamily plate

Previously included in either Pipridae or Tyrannidae, both likewise occurring exclusively in New World; recent genetic data, however, indicate that it belongs with the Old World suboscines#R#R#R, being closest to Eurylaimidae and Philepittidae, and meriting its own family#R#R.

Genus SapayoaSpecies listFamily plate   E. J. O. Hartert, 1903
Family Calyptomenidae (African and Green Broadbills)Family species listFamily plate

Previously included in Eurylaimidae, but shown to be more distant to the taxa currently placed therein than are Philepittidae and Sapayoidae#R.

Genus SmithornisSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1850
Genus CalyptomenaSpecies listFamily plate   Horsfield, 1822

Name coined by Raffles in paper read out in Dec 1820, but not published until Nov 1822; in interim, pre-empted (presumably unintentionally) by Horsfield in a paper published in Jun 1822#R.

Family Thamnophilidae (Typical Antbirds)Family species listFamily plate

Recent phylogenetic studies#R#R#R have led to internal clarification of family and its division into two subfamilies, Thamnophilinae and Myrmornithinae; subsequent work has erected a third, Euchrepomidinae (see below, Euchrepomis).

Subfamily Euchrepomidinae
Genus EuchrepomisSpecies listFamily plate   Bravo et al., 2012

Until very recently included in Terenura, but recent findings based on morphological details, DNA, behaviour, vocalizations and habitat ecology indicate that these taxa form a separate lineage, meriting not only a distinct genus but even a new subfamily, which is basal to the family#R.

Subfamily Thamnophilinae

Recent phylogenetic studies#R#R#R have led to distribution of taxa included herein into five tribes, Microrhopiini, Formicivorini, Thamnophilini, Pithyini and Pyriglenini.

Tribe Microrhopiini
Genus MyrmorchilusSpecies listFamily plate   Ridgway, 1909

Forms a clade with Aprositornis, Ammonastes and Myrmophylax#R.

Genus AprositornisSpecies listFamily plate   M. L. Isler et al., 2013

Traditionally included in Myrmeciza (which see), but recently split as a new genus#R; distinguished by plumage, long bill, voice and tail-flicking behaviour. See also Myrmorchilus.

Genus AmmonastesSpecies listFamily plate   Bravo et al., 2013

Traditionally included in Myrmeciza (which see), but recently split as a new genus#R#R; characterized by plumage pattern, voice and behaviour. See also Myrmorchilus.

Genus MyrmophylaxSpecies listFamily plate   Todd, 1927

Traditionally included in Myrmeciza (which see), but recently resurrected#R. See also Myrmorchilus.

Genus MicrorhopiasSpecies listFamily plate   P. L. Sclater, 1862

Genetic studies suggest that this genus is close to Myrmorchilus and Myrmophylax#R#R.

Genus NeoctantesSpecies listFamily plate   P. L. Sclater, 1869

Sister to Epinecrophylla (“stipple-throated antwrens”)#R.

Genus EpinecrophyllaSpecies listFamily plate   M. L. Isler & Brumfield, 2006

Species of this new genus#R (“stipple-throated antwrens”) were previously included in Myrmotherula, but genetic studies#R indicate that they form a distinct clade; they also differ morphologically.

Genus ClytoctantesSpecies listFamily plate   Elliot, 1870
Tribe Formicivorini
Genus FormicivoraSpecies listFamily plate   Swainson, 1824

Morphological, vocal and molecular studies indicate that, with exception of F. iheringi, all species placed in this genus form a well-defined group#R.

Genus MyrmochanesSpecies listFamily plate   J. A. Allen, 1889
Genus MyrmotherulaSpecies listFamily plate   P. L. Sclater, 1858

Previously incorporated genera Epinecrophylla, Rhopias and Isleria.

Genus TerenuraSpecies listFamily plate   Cabanis & Heine, 1860#R

Previously included all species now placed in Euchrepomis (which see), but they were found not to be related to Terenura#R.

Tribe Thamnophilini
Genus DichrozonaSpecies listFamily plate   Ridgway, 1888
Genus RhopiasSpecies listFamily plate   Cabanis & Heine, 1860

Previously included in Myrmotherula.

Genus IsleriaSpecies listFamily plate   Bravo et al., 2012

Previously included in Myrmotherula, but only distantly related to it and phenotypically distinct from all other thamnophilids#R.

Genus ThamnomanesSpecies listFamily plate   Cabanis, 1847

Relationships to other genera unclear. Species currently included appear to be related on basis of morphology and behaviour, although their nest architecture is somewhat variable.

Genus MegastictusSpecies listFamily plate   Ridgway, 1909
Genus DysithamnusSpecies listFamily plate   Cabanis, 1847

Relationships uncertain: preliminary evidence suggested affiliation with Thamnophilus, and morphological characteristics have connected it with Thamnomanes; more recent phylogenetic analysis found it to be sister to Herpsilochmus#R.

Genus HerpsilochmusSpecies listFamily plate   Cabanis, 1847
Genus CymbilaimusSpecies listFamily plate   G. R. Gray, 1840

Genetic data#R#R indicate that this genus is sister to Taraba, the two forming a clade with Hypoedaleus, Batara, Mackenziaena and Frederickena; all have been linked to Thamnophilus on basis of external morphology, especially strongly hooked bill.

Genus TarabaSpecies listFamily plate   Lesson, 1831#R

Genetic data#R#R indicate that this genus is sister to Cymbilaimus (see above).

Genus HypoedaleusSpecies listFamily plate   Cabanis & Heine, 1860#R

Genetic data#R#R indicate that this genus is sister to Batara; see also Cymbilaimus (above).

Genus BataraSpecies listFamily plate   Lesson, 1831#R

Genetic data#R#R indicate that this genus is sister to Hypoedaleus; see also Cymbilaimus (above).

Genus MackenziaenaSpecies listFamily plate   C. Chubb, 1918

Genetic data#R#R indicate that this genus is sister to Frederickena; see also Cymbilaimus (above).

Genus FrederickenaSpecies listFamily plate   C. Chubb, 1918

Genetic data#R#R indicate that this genus is sister to Mackenziaena; see also Cymbilaimus (above).

Genus SakesphorusSpecies listFamily plate   C. Chubb, 1918

Includes proposed genus Sakesphoroides (see S. cristatus, below).

Genus ThamnophilusSpecies listFamily plate   Vieillot, 1816

Sequence of species is based on a recent analysis of historical diversification in the genus#R.

Genus BiatasSpecies listFamily plate   Cabanis & Heine, 1860#R
Genus XenornisSpecies listFamily plate   Chapman, 1924
Tribe Pithyini
Genus CercomacraSpecies listFamily plate   P. L. Sclater, 1858

Until very recently included all species now placed in Cercomacroides (see below), but the two groups were found not to be sisters#R. Confusion over type species of this genus recently clarified#R.

Genus SciaphylaxSpecies listFamily plate   Bravo et al., 2013

Traditionally included in Myrmeciza (which see), but recently split as a new genus#R#R; apparently sister to Cercomacroides#R (see below).

Genus CercomacroidesSpecies listFamily plate   Tello & Raposo, 2014

Recently split from Cercomacra#R on basis of comprehensive molecular study#R. Genus is feminine due to original usage by describers#R.

Genus DrymophilaSpecies listFamily plate   Swainson, 1824

Apparent close sister relationship to Hypocnemis#R corroborated by more recent studies#R#R.

Genus HypocnemisSpecies listFamily plate   Cabanis, 1847

Apparent sister to Drymophila (see above).

Genus PhaenostictusSpecies listFamily plate   Ridgway, 1909

Forms an obligate ant-following clade with genera Pithys, Willisornis, Phlegopsis, Oneillornis, Gymnopithys and Rhegmatorhina#R. Recent study#R suggests that present genus is sister to Pithys.

Genus PithysSpecies listFamily plate   Vieillot, 1818

See Phaenostictus (above). Recent study#R suggests that present genus is sister to Phaenostictus.

Genus WillisornisSpecies listFamily plate   Agne & Pacheco, 2008

Recently separated from Hylophylax, on basis of molecular study#R; see also Phaenostictus (above). Willisornis is a replacement name for Dichropogon C. Chubb, 1918, which is invalid, being preoccupied by Dichropogon Bezzi, 1910 (a genus of dipteran flies of family Asilidae)#R.

Genus PhlegopsisSpecies listFamily plate   Reichenbach, 1850

See Phaenostictus (above). Incorporates Skutchia (see P. borbae). Phlogopsis P. L. Sclater 1858, often cited as a synonym, is merely an unjustified emendation.

Genus OneillornisSpecies listFamily plate   M. L. Isler et al., 2014

See Phaenostictus (above). Hitherto included in Gymnopithys, but recently split, based on phylogenetic study using DNA, plumage, behaviour, ecology and vocalizations#R. See also Rhegmatorhina (below).

Genus GymnopithysSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1857

See Phaenostictus (above). Until recently, included taxa now placed in Oneillornis (see above).

Genus RhegmatorhinaSpecies listFamily plate   Ridgway, 1888

See Phaenostictus (above). Forms a clade with Oneillornis and Gymnopithys, each genus representing a subclade; all could theoretically be merged into Gymnopithys but in view of considerable differences in plumage, present genus should be retained, which requires erection of the new genus Oneillornis in order to preserve monophyly#R. Together, all members of present genus form a well-defined species group.

Tribe Pyriglenini
Genus MyrmoderusSpecies listFamily plate   Ridgway, 1909

Traditionally included in Myrmeciza (which see), but recently resurrected#R. Close relationship of all included taxa suggested by similarities in plumage, vocalizations and nest architecture.

Genus HylophylaxSpecies listFamily plate   Ridgway, 1909

Phylogenetic study#R found this genus and Hypocnemoides to be sisters. Close relationship of the three species in Hylophylax suggested by morphology, vocalizations and nest architecture.

Genus HypocnemoidesSpecies listFamily plate   Bangs & T. E. Penard, 1918

Appears to be sister to Hylophylax#R.

Genus SclateriaSpecies listFamily plate   Oberholser, 1899

Phylogenetic study#R placed this genus closest to Schistocichla; more recent analysis#R indicates that Schistocichla should be subsumed into Myrmelastes (which see), and that present genus is sister to Myrmelastes.

Genus MyrmelastesSpecies listFamily plate   P. L. Sclater, 1858

Recently resurrected, as a result of traditional Myrmeciza (which see) being broken up#R; also incorporates, from traditional Percnostola (which see), a subgroup that was sometimes recognized as a separate genus, Schistocichla.

Genus PoliocraniaSpecies listFamily plate   Bravo et al., 2013

Traditionally included in Myrmeciza (which see), but recently split as a new genus#R#R; forms a clade with Ampelornis and Sipia.

Genus AmpelornisSpecies listFamily plate   M. L. Isler et al., 2013

Traditionally included in Myrmeciza (which see), but recently split as a new genus#R; forms a clade with Poliocrania and Sipia.

Genus SipiaSpecies listFamily plate   Hellmayr, 1924

Traditionally included in Myrmeciza (which see), but recently resurrected#R; forms a clade with Poliocrania and Ampelornis.

Genus MyrmecizaSpecies listFamily plate   G. R. Gray, 1841

Until very recently, normally treated as a large, varied genus containing almost all taxa now placed in genera Aprositornis, Ammonastes, Myrmophylax, Sciaphylax, Myrmoderus, Myrmelastes, Poliocrania, Ampelornis, Sipia, Akletos and Hafferia. Validity of this conglomeration had long been questioned, and genetic data have recently shown it to be a polyphyletic grouping#R#R; on basis of a study using molecular, morphological, behavioural and ecological data, taxa now redistributed among twelve genera situated in three different tribes of subfamily Thamnophilinae#R.

Genus MyrmoborusSpecies listFamily plate   Cabanis & Heine, 1860#R
Genus GymnocichlaSpecies listFamily plate   P. L. Sclater, 1858

Genetic study#R suggests closest relatives may be Percnostola, Akletos and Hafferia.

Genus PyriglenaSpecies listFamily plate   Cabanis, 1847

Has been considered perhaps sister to Rhopornis on basis of voice and behaviour. Genetic study#R suggests closest relatives may be Gymnocichla, Percnostola, Akletos and Hafferia.

Genus RhopornisSpecies listFamily plate   Richmond, 1902

Relationships uncertain; possible close relationship to Pyriglena indicated by voice and behaviour.

Genus PercnostolaSpecies listFamily plate   Cabanis & Heine, 1860

Traditional interpretation of this genus was recently reappraised and the taxa redistributed into three groups#R: two species currently retained herein; a group in past sometimes separated as genus Schistocichla, and now reassigned to Myrmelastes (which see); and a single taxon (lophotes) transferred to Myrmoborus.

Genus AkletosSpecies listFamily plate   Dunajewski, 1948

Recently resurrected, having traditionally been included in Myrmeciza (which see); when the species currently included herein were split generically#R they were initially placed in new genus Inundicola, but this proved to be a junior synonym of Akletos#R.

Genus HafferiaSpecies listFamily plate   M. L. Isler et al., 2013

Traditionally included in Myrmeciza (which see), but recently split as a new genus#R.

Subfamily Myrmornithinae
Genus MyrmornisSpecies listFamily plate   Hermann, 1783

Relationships uncertain; recent molecular phylogeny#R suggests that it may be closest to Pygiptila and Thamnistes.

Genus PygiptilaSpecies listFamily plate   P. L. Sclater, 1858

Sister to Thamnistes, the two being close to Myrmornis#R#R.

Genus ThamnistesSpecies listFamily plate   P. L. Sclater & Salvin, 1860

Sister to Pygiptila, the two being close to Myrmornis#R#R.

Family Conopophagidae (Gnateaters)Family species listFamily plate
Genus ConopophagaSpecies listFamily plate   Vieillot, 1816
Genus PittasomaSpecies listFamily plate   Cassin, 1860

Previously included in Formicariidae, alongside taxa currently separated as family Grallariidae, but on basis of DNA, as well as morphological and vocal data, found instead to be sister to Conopophaga#R#R.

Family Melanopareiidae (Crescentchests)Family species listFamily plate
Genus MelanopareiaSpecies listFamily plate   Reichenbach, 1853

Previously included in Rhinocryptidae, but genetic analyses indicate that it merits elevation to its own family#R#R#R.

Family Grallariidae (Antpittas)Family species listFamily plate

Previously included in Formicariidae, but DNA studies indicate that the four genera currently included herein form a monophyletic group, whereas current members of Formicariidae may be closer to some members of Rhinocryptidae#R#R.

Genus GrallariaSpecies listFamily plate   Vieillot, 1816

On basis of DNA analysis, sister to the other three genera in this family#R#R.

Genus HylopezusSpecies listFamily plate   Ridgway, 1909

On basis of DNA analysis, sister to Myrmothera#R#R. In past, often subsumed within Grallaria.

Genus MyrmotheraSpecies listFamily plate   Vieillot, 1816

On basis of DNA analysis, sister to Hylopezus#R#R.

Genus GrallariculaSpecies listFamily plate   P. L. Sclater, 1858

On basis of DNA analysis, sister to the clade formed by Hylopezus and Myrmothera#R#R.

Family Rhinocryptidae (Tapaculos)Family species listFamily plate

Recent phylogenetic study recommends division into two subfamilies, Rhinocryptinae and Scytalopodinae#R.

Subfamily Rhinocryptinae
Genus PteroptochosSpecies listFamily plate   Kittlitz, 1830

Sister to Scelorchilus#R.

Genus ScelorchilusSpecies listFamily plate   Oberholser, 1923

Sister to Pteroptochos#R.

Genus LioscelesSpecies listFamily plate   P. L. Sclater, 1865

Sister to genus Psilorhamphus#R.

Genus PsilorhamphusSpecies listFamily plate   P. L. Sclater, 1855

Sister to Liosceles#R.

Genus AcropternisSpecies listFamily plate   Cabanis & Heine, 1860#R
Genus RhinocryptaSpecies listFamily plate   G. R. Gray, 1841#R
Genus TeledromasSpecies listFamily plate   Wetmore & J. L. Peters, 1922

Shows certain structural features similar to those of Melanopareia (Melanopareiidae), but on basis of biochemistry belongs with typical tapaculos.

Subfamily Scytalopodinae
Genus EleoscytalopusSpecies listFamily plate   Maurício et al., 2008

Separated from Scytalopus on basis of genetic findings#R#R; sister to Merulaxis. Loudsongs clearly different from those of Scytalopus#R.

Genus MerulaxisSpecies listFamily plate   Lesson, 1831

Sister-genus to Eleoscytalopus#R. Publication date problematic#R.

Genus MyornisSpecies listFamily plate   Chapman, 1915

In past merged with Scytalopus, but continued treatment as separate genus corroborated by recent genetic analysis#R.

Genus EugrallaSpecies listFamily plate   Lesson, 1842
Genus ScytalopusSpecies listFamily plate   Gould, 1837
Family Formicariidae (Ground-antbirds)Family species listFamily plate

Previously treated as including all members of Grallariidae and Pittasoma, but DNA studies indicate that the previous grouping was paraphyletic#R#R, and that the two genera currently retained herein may be closer to some members of Rhinocryptidae#R.

Genus FormicariusSpecies listFamily plate   Boddaert, 1783
Genus ChamaezaSpecies listFamily plate   Vigors, 1825
Family Furnariidae (Ovenbirds)Family species listFamily plate
Subfamily Sclerurinae

Genetic data#R#R support earlier findings that Sclerurus and Geositta are sisters, and are basal to all other furnariid genera; in recent years, sometimes treated as a separate family.

Genus SclerurusSpecies listFamily plate   Swainson, 1827
Genus GeosittaSpecies listFamily plate   Swainson, 1837
Subfamily Dendrocolaptinae

Frequently treated as a separate family, although always closely linked to other current members of Furnariidae.

Tribe Sittasomini
Genus CerthiasomusSpecies listFamily plate   Derryberry et al., 2010

Newly erected genus#R, previously included in Deconychura.

Genus DeconychuraSpecies listFamily plate   Cherrie, 1891
Genus SittasomusSpecies listFamily plate   Swainson, 1827
Genus DendrocinclaSpecies listFamily plate   G. R. Gray, 1840

Sequence of species follows findings of recent phylogenetic studies#R#R combined with correlated evolution of bill morphology and song#R.

Tribe Dendrocolaptini
Genus GlyphorynchusSpecies listFamily plate   Wied, 1831
Genus DendrexetastesSpecies listFamily plate   Eyton, 1851

Proposed close relationship with Campylorhamphus refuted by subsequent analyses#R#R#R.

Genus NasicaSpecies listFamily plate   Lesson, 1830
Genus DendrocolaptesSpecies listFamily plate   Hermann, 1804
Genus HylexetastesSpecies listFamily plate   P. L. Sclater, 1889
Genus XiphocolaptesSpecies listFamily plate   Lesson, 1840
Genus XiphorhynchusSpecies listFamily plate   Swainson, 1827

Sequence of species based on the findings of a recent multilocus phylogenetic analysis#R.

Genus DendroplexSpecies listFamily plate   Swainson, 1827

Previously subsumed into Xiphorhynchus. Confusion in past over identity of name, as original description was shortly afterwards (1837) attached by Swainson to sketch of type species, misidentified as X. ocellatus; recent reassessment confirmed D. picus as type species and underlined morphological distinctness of Dendroplex#R, its validity as a separate genus being further supported by analysis of molecular data#R. DNA analysis indicates closer affinity to Campylorhamphus and Lepidocolaptes than to Xiphorhynchus.

Genus CampylorhamphusSpecies listFamily plate   A. W. Bertoni, 1901
Genus DrymotoxeresSpecies listFamily plate   Claramunt et al., 2010

Until recently included in Campylorhamphus, but recent study found that its single species differs genetically, morphologically and in habitat#R#R. Forms a clade with Drymornis and Lepidocolaptes.

Genus DrymornisSpecies listFamily plate   Eyton, 1852

Sister-genus to Drymotoxeres, the two forming a clade with Lepidocolaptes#R#R.

Genus LepidocolaptesSpecies listFamily plate   Reichenbach, 1853

Forms a clade with Drymotoxeres and Drymornis#R#R.

Subfamily Furnariinae

Recent phylogenetic work supports subdivision into 5–6 clades (herein tribes), depending on inclusion or exclusion of Xenopini#R.

Tribe Xenopini

Different genetic datasets variously suggest present taxon is closer to either Dendrocolaptinae or Furnariinae, and sometimes all three are awarded separate families#R#R#R#R.

Genus XenopsSpecies listFamily plate   Illiger, 1811
Tribe Berlepschiini
Genus BerlepschiaSpecies listFamily plate   Ridgway, 1887
Tribe Pygarrhichadini
Genus MicroxenopsSpecies listFamily plate   Chapman, 1914
Genus PygarrhichasSpecies listFamily plate   Burmeister, 1837
Genus OchetorhynchusSpecies listFamily plate   Meyen, 1834

Recently resurrected and redefined, now comprising two species formerly in Upucerthia, as well as formerly monospecific Chilia and Eremobius; current grouping based on plumage features and genetic analyses#R#R#R, backed up by subsequent evolutionary study#R.

Tribe Furnariini
Genus PseudocolaptesSpecies listFamily plate   Reichenbach, 1853
Genus PremnornisSpecies listFamily plate   Ridgway, 1909

Previously thought to be closely related to Margarornis, Premnoplex and Roraimia, but differs greatly, especially in behaviour#R. Genetic studies#R#R#R#R indicate that it is closer to Pseudocolaptes; see also Tarphonomus (below).

Genus TarphonomusSpecies listFamily plate   Chesser & Brumfield, 2007

These two species were previously placed in Upucerthia and then in Ochetorhynchus, but found to be unrelated to either#R. Subsequent genetic analyses#R#R indicate that this genus is sister to Premnornis, with Pseudocolaptes sister to that pair.

Genus FurnariusSpecies listFamily plate   Vieillot, 1816
Genus LochmiasSpecies listFamily plate   Swainson, 1827

Recent genetic studies#R#R indicate that this genus is sister to Phleocryptes and Limnornis.

Genus PhleocryptesSpecies listFamily plate   Cabanis & Heine, 1860#R

Genetic data#R#R reveal that this genus forms a clade with Limnornis, the two being sister to Lochmias.

Genus LimnornisSpecies listFamily plate   Gould, 1839

In past, sometimes considered to include Limnoctites, but the two are not closely related#R. See also Phleocryptes (above).

Genus GeocerthiaSpecies listFamily plate   Chesser & Claramunt, 2009

Previously placed in Upucerthia, but found not to be closely related to any members of that genus; separation in newly erected genus#R corroborated by subsequent studies#R.

Genus UpucerthiaSpecies listFamily plate   I. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1832

Traditionally treated as more speciose, but molecular studies#R#R have led to removal of several species variously to Ochetorhynchus, Tarphonomus and Geocerthia.

Genus CinclodesSpecies listFamily plate   G. R. Gray, 1840
Tribe Philydorini
Genus AnabazenopsSpecies listFamily plate   Lafresnaye, 1840#R
Genus MegaxenopsSpecies listFamily plate   Reiser, 1905
Genus CichlocolaptesSpecies listFamily plate   Reichenbach, 1853
Genus HeliobletusSpecies listFamily plate   Reichenbach, 1853

Sometimes merged into Xenops, from which it shows only minor differences in plumage characters, although the two differ clearly in vocalizations; genetic data#R#R#R support recognition of separate genera. Although original description of genus cited misidentified type species, textual description clearly refers to present genus#R.

Genus PhilydorSpecies listFamily plate   Spix, 1824

Genetic data#R suggest that this genus as presently constituted may be paraphyletic.

Genus AnabacerthiaSpecies listFamily plate   Lafresnaye, 1840#R

Sometimes merged into a broadly defined Philydor, but genetic data#R#R corroborate separation.

Genus SyndactylaSpecies listFamily plate   Reichenbach, 1853

Sometimes merged into a broad Philydor, while foraging behaviour and voice have suggested to some that it may be closer to Thripadectes than present sequence suggests. Incorporates Simoxenops.

Genus AncistropsSpecies listFamily plate   P. L. Sclater, 1862
Genus ClibanornisSpecies listFamily plate   P. L. Sclater & Salvin, 1873

Incorporates genus Hylocryptus, as indicated by genetic analyses#R#R.

Genus ThripadectesSpecies listFamily plate   P. L. Sclater, 1862
Genus AutomolusSpecies listFamily plate   Reichenbach, 1853

Incorporates Hyloctistes, which was found by genetic analyses to be nested within present genus#R#R.

Tribe Synallaxini
Genus PremnoplexSpecies listFamily plate   Cherrie, 1891

Sister-genus to Margarornis, based on morphology and behaviour#R, as well as DNA studies#R#R.

Genus MargarornisSpecies listFamily plate   Reichenbach, 1853

Sister-genus to Premnoplex (see above).

Genus AphrasturaSpecies listFamily plate   Oberholser, 1899
Genus SylviorthorhynchusSpecies listFamily plate   Gay, 1845

Until recently, naming of genus and species erroneously ascribed to Des Murs, 1847#R.

Genus LeptasthenuraSpecies listFamily plate   Reichenbach, 1853
Genus PhacellodomusSpecies listFamily plate   Reichenbach, 1853
Genus HellmayreaSpecies listFamily plate   Stolzmann, 1926
Genus AnumbiusSpecies listFamily plate   d’Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1838
Genus CoryphisteraSpecies listFamily plate   Burmeister, 1860
Genus AsthenesSpecies listFamily plate   Reichenbach, 1853

Incorporates Oreophylax and Schizoeaca, following comprehensive phylogenetic analyses#R.

Genus AcrobatornisSpecies listFamily plate   Pacheco et al., 1996

Genetic analyses#R#R show this genus to be sister to Metopothrix and Xenerpestes.

Genus MetopothrixSpecies listFamily plate   P. L. Sclater & Salvin, 1866

DNA data#R#R show this genus to be sister to Xenerpestes, with Acrobatornis sister to the pair.

Genus XenerpestesSpecies listFamily plate   Berlepsch, 1886

Sister to Metopothrix (see above).

Genus SiptornisSpecies listFamily plate   Reichenbach, 1853
Genus RoraimiaSpecies listFamily plate   Chapman, 1929

Has been merged into Margarornis by some authors, or thought by others to be closer to Premnoplex or Premnornis, but genetic data#R#R#R indicate that it is part of a group that also contains Thripophaga and Cranioleuca.

Genus ThripophagaSpecies listFamily plate   Cabanis, 1847
Genus LimnoctitesSpecies listFamily plate   Hellmayr, 1925
Genus CranioleucaSpecies listFamily plate   Reichenbach, 1853
Genus PseudasthenesSpecies listFamily plate   Derryberry et al., 2010

Sister to the SpartonoicaPseudoseisura clade. Previously included in Asthenes, but genetic analysis#R shows such treatment to render Asthenes polyphyletic, thereby corroborating earlier suggestions#R#R.

Genus SpartonoicaSpecies listFamily plate   J. L. Peters, 1950

Forms a clade with Pseudoseisura, the two being sister to Pseudasthenes#R.

Genus PseudoseisuraSpecies listFamily plate   Reichenbach, 1853

Forms a clade with Spartonoica, the two being sister to Pseudasthenes#R.

Genus MazariaSpecies listFamily plate   Claramunt, 2014

Previously placed in Synallaxis; recent molecular data#R suggest sister relationship to Schoeniophylax; further phylogenetic study#R confirms this relationship, and indicates that these two are sister to Certhiaxis, and that the three together are sister to Synallaxis.

Genus SchoeniophylaxSpecies listFamily plate   Ridgway, 1909

See Mazaria (above).

Genus CerthiaxisSpecies listFamily plate   Lesson, 1844

See Mazaria (above).

Genus SynallaxisSpecies listFamily plate   Vieillot, 1818

Incorporates Poecilurus, Siptornopsis and Gyalophylax, all of which have been found to be morphologically and genetically#R inseparable from Synallaxis. See also Mazaria (above).

Family Pipridae (Manakins)Family species listFamily plate
Subfamily Neopelminae
Genus NeopelmaSpecies listFamily plate   P. L. Sclater, 1861

Molecular data#R#R show this as sister-genus to Tyranneutes, the two being sister to all other piprid genera.

Genus TyranneutesSpecies listFamily plate   P. L. Sclater & Salvin, 1881

See Neopelma (above).

Subfamily Piprinae
Tribe Piprini
Genus XenopipoSpecies listFamily plate   Cabanis, 1847
Genus HeterocercusSpecies listFamily plate   P. L. Sclater, 1862

Despite its morphological distinctiveness, nested within typical piprid genera, as confirmed by genetic data#R#R.

Genus ManacusSpecies listFamily plate   Brisson, 1760
Genus PipraSpecies listFamily plate   Linnaeus, 1764
Genus MachaeropterusSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1854
Genus PseudopipraSpecies listFamily plate   Kirwan et al., 2016

Until recently, listed as Dixiphia; this name has now been shown to apply not to this manakin but rather to the tyrannid Arundinicola (see page 200), of which it is a junior objective synonym#R. Previously subsumed within Pipra, thereby rendering that genus non-monophyletic#R.

Genus CeratopipraSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1854

Previously included in Pipra, but phylogenetic studies#R#R#R show that this renders Pipra non-monophyletic.

Genus CryptopipoSpecies listFamily plate   Ohlson et al., 2013

Newly erected genus, its species formerly placed in Chloropipo, but found in genetic study#R to be sister to Lepidothrix.

Genus ChloropipoSpecies listFamily plate   Cabanis & Heine, 1860#R

Molecular data#R indicate that closest relatives include Cryptopipo and Lepidothrix. Formerly thought close to Xenopipo and sometimes merged with it, but vocal repertoire far less extensive.

Genus LepidothrixSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1854

Often merged with Pipra, but genetic data support its separation#R#R. Genus name was claimed to be preoccupied by an insect genus (of Thysanura: silverfish, firebrats and relatives) named by Menge, also in 1854, so replacement name Neolepidothrix was proposed#R; however, Menge’s original spelling was Lepidotrix, and in genus-group names these two are not homonyms, while in any case Bonaparte’s name appears to have priority#R.

Tribe Ilicurini
Genus IlicuraSpecies listFamily plate   Reichenbach, 1850

See Masius (below).

Genus MasiusSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1850

Genetic study#R indicates this is sister-genus to Corapipo, with Ilicura sister to the two; another genetic study#R generally supports these findings, but could not confirm monophyly of Corapipo with regard to Masius.

Genus CorapipoSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1854

See Masius (above).

Genus AntilophiaSpecies listFamily plate   Reichenbach, 1850

Sister to Chiroxiphia, this relationship corroborated by genetic data#R#R.

Genus ChiroxiphiaSpecies listFamily plate   Cabanis, 1847

Sister to Antilophia, this relationship corroborated by genetic data#R#R.

Family Cotingidae (Cotingas)Family species listFamily plate
Subfamily Pipreolinae
Genus AmpelioidesSpecies listFamily plate   J. P. Verreaux, 1867

Sister to Pipreola#R.

Genus PipreolaSpecies listFamily plate   Swainson, 1838

Sister to Ampelioides#R.

Subfamily Rupicolinae
Genus SnowornisSpecies listFamily plate   Prum, 2001

Species placed in this new genus were formerly included in Lipaugus, but morphology and DNA analysis indicate only remote relationship to latter; previous suggestion of placement in Lathria, but that name unavailable.

Genus CarpornisSpecies listFamily plate   G. R. Gray, 1846

Sister to Snowornis#R. In past, sometimes included in Ampelion, but the two are only remotely related.

Genus RupicolaSpecies listFamily plate   Brisson, 1760

Sometimes accorded its own separate family, Rupicolidae, but sister relationship with Phoenicircus confirmed by genetic data#R#R#R.

Genus PhoenicircusSpecies listFamily plate   Swainson, 1832

Sister to Rupicola (see above).

Subfamily Phytotominae
Genus ZaratornisSpecies listFamily plate   Koepcke, 1954

Sometimes merged with Ampelion, but differs in skull structure and plumage. Recent genetic data#R confirm that the two form a clade with Phytotoma, Phibalura and Doliornis.

Genus PhytotomaSpecies listFamily plate   Molina, 1782

Formerly treated as a separate family of uncertain affinities, or even as subfamily of Tyrannidae; see Zaratornis (above).

Genus PhibaluraSpecies listFamily plate   Vieillot, 1816

See Zaratornis (above).

Genus DoliornisSpecies listFamily plate   Taczanowski, 1874

Sometimes merged with Ampelion, but differs in bill structure and juvenile plumage. See also Zaratornis (above).

Genus AmpelionSpecies listFamily plate   Tschudi, 1845

See Zaratornis (above).

Subfamily Cephalopterinae
Genus HaematoderusSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1854
Genus QuerulaSpecies listFamily plate   Vieillot, 1816
Genus PyroderusSpecies listFamily plate   G. R. Gray, 1840
Genus CephalopterusSpecies listFamily plate   E. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1809
Genus PerissocephalusSpecies listFamily plate   Oberholser, 1899

Recent phylogenetic study#R found this genus to be embedded within Cephalopterus; further study advised.

Subfamily Cotinginae
Genus LipaugusSpecies listFamily plate   Boie, 1828

Incorporates Tijuca, which was found in recent genetic study#R to be embedded in Lipaugus.

Genus ProcniasSpecies listFamily plate   Illiger, 1811
Genus CotingaSpecies listFamily plate   Brisson, 1760
Genus PorphyrolaemaSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1854
Genus ConioptilonSpecies listFamily plate   Lowery & O’Neill, 1966

Genetic data#R indicate closest affinities to Gymnoderus.

Genus GymnoderusSpecies listFamily plate   E. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1809

Genetic data#R indicate closest affinities to Conioptilon.

Genus XipholenaSpecies listFamily plate   Gloger, 1841
Genus CarpodectesSpecies listFamily plate   Salvin, 1865
Family Tityridae (Tityras and allies)Family species listFamily plate

Varied assemblage of genera long considered taxonomically problematic, and hitherto scattered variously by different authors among families Cotingidae, Tyrannidae and Pipridae, with frequent separation of Oxyruncidae, sometimes a reduced form of Tityridae, and lately Onychorhynchidae; recently shown by several phylogenetic studies to form a monophyletic group#R#R#R#R. Family name Tityridae introduced in 1830, thus having priority for this assemblage over name Oxyruncidae, of Feb 1832.

Subfamily Oxyruncinae
Genus OxyruncusSpecies listFamily plate   Temminck, 1820

Relationships long debated, and genus variously included in Cotingidae, Tyrannidae or Tityridae, or sometimes placed in separate family Oxyruncidae, either on its own#R#R or with Onychorhynchus, Myiobius and Terenotriccus#R; recent analyses generally suggest that it belongs in Tityridae, within which it may be closest to members of Onychorhynchinae#R.

Subfamily Onychorhynchinae
Genus OnychorhynchusSpecies listFamily plate   J. G. Fischer von Waldheim, 1810

Traditionally placed in Tyrannidae. Appears to form a clade with Terenotriccus and Myiobius; this clade is probably sister to Oxyruncus (see also above). Name misspelt in HBW.

Genus TerenotriccusSpecies listFamily plate   Ridgway, 1905

Traditionally placed in Tyrannidae; see also Onychorhynchus (above). Sometimes included in Myiobius.

Genus MyiobiusSpecies listFamily plate   G. R. Gray, 1839

Traditionally placed in Tyrannidae; see also Onychorhynchus and Terenotriccus (above). Author has normally, but erroneously, been listed as Darwin (as in HBW)#R.

Subfamily Tityrinae
Tribe Tityrini
Genus IodopleuraSpecies listFamily plate   Lesson, 1839

Traditionally placed in Cotingidae; see Tityra (below).

Genus TityraSpecies listFamily plate   Vieillot, 1816

Formerly included, with Pachyramphus, in Cotingidae; both were subsequently transferred to Tyrannidae, but recent molecular analyses#R#R#R#R indicate that the two, together with Iodopleura and Xenopsaris, represent a monophyletic group distinct from both of those families.

Genus XenopsarisSpecies listFamily plate   Ridgway, 1891

Previously placed in Cotingidae and then Tyrannidae. Apparently closest to Pachyramphus, but maintained as separate genus on basis most notably of much smaller size, different tarsal scutellation, short pointed primary P9, absence of strong sexual dimorphism, and different nest type.

Genus PachyramphusSpecies listFamily plate   G. R. Gray, 1839#R

See Tityra and Xenopsaris (above).

Tribe Ptilochlorini

Name based on Ptilochlorus, a junior synonym of Laniisoma.

Genus SchiffornisSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1854

Traditionally placed in Pipridae, although long suspected to be out of place there. Appears to form a clade with Laniocera and Laniisoma, being sister to both.

Genus LanioceraSpecies listFamily plate   Lesson, 1841#R

Often placed in Cotingidae or Tyrannidae, but see Schiffornis (above).

Genus LaniisomaSpecies listFamily plate   Swainson, 1832

Traditionally placed in Cotingidae, but see Schiffornis (above).

Family Tyrannidae (Tyrant-flycatchers)Family species listFamily plate

Highly speciose family, herein divided into nine subfamilies (with ten tribes); recent studies#R#R suggest that the first four listed (Platyrinchinae, Pipritinae, Tachurisinae, Pipromorphinae) are sister to rest of family, and may merit treatment as 1–4 separate families.

Subfamily Platyrinchinae
Genus CalypturaSpecies listFamily plate   Swainson, 1832

Traditionally placed in Cotingidae. DNA from old museum specimen (collected in 1820s) reveals this genus as being closest to Neopipo and Platyrinchus#R.

Genus NeopipoSpecies listFamily plate   P. L. Sclater & Salvin, 1869

Previously placed in Pipridae, but subsequently shown to belong in Tyrannidae, on basis of morphology, nest structure#R and genetic data#R#R; see also Calyptura (above).

Genus PlatyrinchusSpecies listFamily plate   Desmarest, 1805

Some 15–20 emendations proposed (all unjustified), of which most frequently used include Platyrhynchus, Platyrhynchos and Platyrinchos.

Subfamily Pipritinae
Genus PipritesSpecies listFamily plate   Cabanis, 1847

Previously placed in Pipridae, but genetic data support its placement with Tyrannidae#R, or perhaps forming a separate, closely related family#R.

Subfamily Tachurisinae

Sometimes considered a separate family; apparently closest to Pipritinae and Platyrinchinae#R#R. Name originally proposed in 2013 as “Tachurididae”#R, but the genus name comes from Guaraní rather than Latin and original spelling requires correction to “Tachurisidae”#R (here modified for subfamily rank).

Genus TachurisSpecies listFamily plate   Lafresnaye, 1836

Date sometimes given (tentatively) as 1835#R, but both possible sources of name were apparently issued in 1836#R.

Subfamily Pipromorphinae

Varied assemblage of genera, most of which have traditionally been grouped together, but detailed sequence now modified on basis of genetic findings#R#R#R. Type genus currently subsumed into Mionectes.

Tribe Pipromorphini
Genus PseudotriccusSpecies listFamily plate   Taczanowski & Berlepsch, 1885

Suggested to be sister to Corythopis, based on cranial and syringeal morphology#R; this relationship is supported by later genetic data#R#R.

Genus CorythopisSpecies listFamily plate   Sundevall, 1836

See Pseudotriccus (above).

Genus PhylloscartesSpecies listFamily plate   Cabanis & Heine, 1860#R

Close to Pogonotriccus (see below).

Genus PogonotriccusSpecies listFamily plate   Cabanis & Heine, 1860#R

Previously merged with Phylloscartes, and close relationship suggested by genetic data#R and nest architecture#R.

Genus MionectesSpecies listFamily plate   Cabanis, 1844

Incorporates Pipromorpha.

Genus LeptopogonSpecies listFamily plate   Cabanis, 1844
Genus TaeniotriccusSpecies listFamily plate   Berlepsch & E. J. O. Hartert, 1902

Sometimes included in Poecilotriccus, and internal morphology agrees with this; but better treated as a separate genus, on basis of distinctive morphological features (e.g. crest, bill shape, wing and facial patterns, unusual comb-like feathers above eyes, ruff-like feathering of head and nape), as well as vocalizations.

Genus CnipodectesSpecies listFamily plate   P. L. Sclater & Salvin, 1873
Tribe Rhynchocyclini
Genus RhynchocyclusSpecies listFamily plate   Cabanis & Heine, 1860#R
Genus TolmomyiasSpecies listFamily plate   Hellmayr, 1927
Tribe Triccini

Name based on Triccus, a junior synonym of Todirostrum, whereas Todirostrini is a junior synonym of Triccini#R.

Genus MyiornisSpecies listFamily plate   A. W. Bertoni, 1901
Genus OncostomaSpecies listFamily plate   P. L. Sclater, 1862
Genus LophotriccusSpecies listFamily plate   Berlepsch, 1884
Genus AtalotriccusSpecies listFamily plate   Ridgway, 1905

Sometimes merged with Lophotriccus, despite lack of distinctive crown pattern.

Genus HemitriccusSpecies listFamily plate   Cabanis & Heine, 1860#R

Incorporates Snethlagea, Idioptilon, Microcochlearius, Euscarthmornis and Ceratotriccus, in recent times all most commonly used as subgenera. Moreover, genetic data suggest that, as currently defined, present genus is not monophyletic#R#R#R.

Genus PoecilotriccusSpecies listFamily plate   Berlepsch, 1884

Formerly included in Todirostrum.

Genus TodirostrumSpecies listFamily plate   Lesson, 1831
Subfamily Hirundineinae

Recently erected subfamily#R, comprising genera Myiotriccus, Nephelomyias, Pyrrhomyias and Hirundinea.

Genus MyiotriccusSpecies listFamily plate   Ridgway, 1905

See Nephelomyias (below).

Genus NephelomyiasSpecies listFamily plate   Ohlson et al., 2009

Newly erected genus for three species traditionally placed in Myiophobus; extensive DNA-based study#R shows them to constitute a well-supported clade not closely related to other Myiophobus, instead forming a small independent lineage with Myiotriccus, Pyrrhomyias and Hirundinea.

Genus PyrrhomyiasSpecies listFamily plate   Cabanis & Heine, 1860#R

See Nephelomyias (above).

Genus HirundineaSpecies listFamily plate   d’Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837

See Nephelomyias (above).

Subfamily Elaeniinae
Tribe Euscarthmini
Genus ZimmeriusSpecies listFamily plate   Traylor, 1977

Taxa formerly included in Tyranniscus, but, when that genus was divided into two groups, the type species (nigrocapillus) was one of three species transferred to Phyllomyias, thus requiring erection of present genus#R.

Genus StigmaturaSpecies listFamily plate   P. L. Sclater & Salvin, 1866
Genus IneziaSpecies listFamily plate   Cherrie, 1909

Probably polyphyletic as currently constituted; study needed.

Genus EuscarthmusSpecies listFamily plate   Wied, 1831
Genus OrnithionSpecies listFamily plate   Hartlaub, 1853

Sister to Camptostoma, based on genetic data#R. Incorporates Microtriccus.

Genus CamptostomaSpecies listFamily plate   P. L. Sclater, 1857

Sister to Ornithion, based on genetic data#R.

Tribe Elaeniini
Genus ElaeniaSpecies listFamily plate   Sundevall, 1836
Genus TyrannulusSpecies listFamily plate   Vieillot, 1816

In many respects transitional between Phyllomyias and Myiopagis; anatomical evidence suggests closer relationship to latter.

Genus MyiopagisSpecies listFamily plate   Salvin & Godman, 1888

Sister to Suiriri#R.

Genus SuiririSpecies listFamily plate   d’Orbigny, 1840

Sister to Myiopagis#R.

Genus CapsiempisSpecies listFamily plate   Cabanis & Heine, 1860#R

Previously merged with Phylloscartes, but genetic data#R#R indicate that it is sister to Phyllomyias and Phaeomyias.

Genus PhyllomyiasSpecies listFamily plate   Cabanis & Heine, 1860#R

Probably polyphyletic, as presently constituted; objective phylogenetic analysis required, using both molecular and anatomical characters. Anatomical evidence suggests that P. fasciatus (and presumably P. weedeni), P. griseocapilla and P. griseiceps may be unrelated to others in genus, some or all of which might be better placed in a resurrected Tyranniscus (type of Phyllomyias is P. fasciatus brevirostris).

Genus PhaeomyiasSpecies listFamily plate   Berlepsch, 1902

Recent mtDNA study nests Nesotriccus within Phaeomyias, suggesting the two should perhaps be merged#R.

Genus NesotriccusSpecies listFamily plate   C. H. Townsend, 1895
Genus PseudelaeniaSpecies listFamily plate   W. E. Lanyon, 1988

Hypothesized to be close to Stigmatura on basis of cranial and syringeal characters, but genetic study#R found it to be an independent lineage.

Genus MecocerculusSpecies listFamily plate   P. L. Sclater, 1862

As presently constituted, probably polyphyletic; study needed.

Genus AnairetesSpecies listFamily plate   Reichenbach, 1850

Long replaced by name Spizitornis, as present name was erroneously believed to be preoccupied.

Genus PolystictusSpecies listFamily plate   Reichenbach, 1850

Genetic data#R confirm close relationship with Culicivora. Previously listed under replacement name Habrura, but Polystictus is valid and has priority.

Genus CulicivoraSpecies listFamily plate   Swainson, 1827

Often treated as incertae sedis because of unusual plumage and tail feathers, presence of only ten rectrices, and non-exaspidean tarsi; plumage, bill morphology, behaviour and habitat suggest probable close relationship to Pseudocolopteryx, and this is supported by some genetic data#R.

Genus PseudocolopteryxSpecies listFamily plate   Lillo, 1905
Genus SerpophagaSpecies listFamily plate   Gould, 1839

Monophyly of genus, as currently constituted, has been questioned, with proposal for first three species listed below being placed in a new genus, Holmbergphaga#R; if split accepted, however, name Ridgwayornis#R would have priority.

Genus UromyiasSpecies listFamily plate   Hellmayr, 1927

Previously subsumed into Anairetes, but recognition supported by recent genetic study#R.

Subfamily Muscigrallinae
Genus MuscigrallaSpecies listFamily plate   d’Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837

Placed by early authors in Cotingidae or Formicariidae, on basis of tarsal scutes. Affinities within present family unclear; placed in or near Muscisaxicola by some, but coronal patch, long legs with aberrant scutellation, bare tibia, and wing and tail shapes support separation in monotypic genus; molecular data confirm distinctiveness, and place it in monotypic subfamily, being sister to pairing of Tyranninae and Fluvicolinae#R.

Subfamily Tyranninae
Tribe Tyrannini
Genus AttilaSpecies listFamily plate   Lesson, 1831#R

Along with Legatus and Ramphotrigon, appears to be basal to Tyranninae#R. In past, classified in Cotingidae.

Genus LegatusSpecies listFamily plate   P. L. Sclater, 1859

Affinities uncertain, but see Attila (above). Previously linked with Myiozetetes on basis of syringeal morphology and fully enclosed globular nest, as well as piratical nesting behaviour; however, observations suggest that such behaviour and/or nest adoption may have evolved several times independently or be ancestral traits in the subfamily.

Genus RamphotrigonSpecies listFamily plate   G. R. Gray, 1855

Affinities uncertain, but see Attila (above); previously thought to be allied to Tolmomyias and Rhynchocyclus.

Genus DeltarhynchusSpecies listFamily plate   Ridgway, 1893

Affinities uncertain. Currently considered closest to Ramphotrigon, and sometimes merged with it, but differs in syringeal characters.

Genus PitangusSpecies listFamily plate   Swainson, 1827

Affinities uncertain; may be close to Myiozetetes, given numerous similarities in nesting behaviour. See also Philohydor (below).

Genus PhilohydorSpecies listFamily plate   W. E. Lanyon, 1984

Close to Pitangus, and perhaps sister to it#R; often subsumed therein, despite substantial differences in morphology and behaviour.

Genus MachetornisSpecies listFamily plate   G. R. Gray, 1841

Previously associated with Fluvicolinae, mainly on basis of cranial and syringeal morphology#R; but long suspected to belong with kingbirds#R, and molecular evidence confirms a close relationship with Pitangus#R.

Genus TyrannopsisSpecies listFamily plate   Ridgway, 1905

Long considered closely related to Myiozetetes on grounds of plumage; syringeal morphology and nest architecture suggest closer affinity to Megarynchus, and DNA evidence supports this#R.

Genus MegarynchusSpecies listFamily plate   Thunberg, 1824

See Tyrannopsis (above).

Genus MyiodynastesSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1857

Sister to Tyrannopsis and Megarynchus#R; long suggested to be closest to Conopias, largely on basis of similar hole-nesting tendencies.

Genus MyiozetetesSpecies listFamily plate   P. L. Sclater, 1859

See Tyrannus (below).

Genus ConopiasSpecies listFamily plate   Cabanis & Heine, 1860#R

See Tyrannus (below). No evidence for previously hypothesized relationship with Myiodynastes.

Genus PhelpsiaSpecies listFamily plate   W. E. Lanyon, 1984

See Tyrannus (below). In past, variously placed in Myiozetetes or Conopias, but differs significantly in syringeal morphology and nest architecture. Further research required.

Genus EmpidonomusSpecies listFamily plate   Cabanis & Heine, 1860#R

See Tyrannus (below).

Genus GriseotyrannusSpecies listFamily plate   W. E. Lanyon, 1984

Long included in Empidonomus, owing to similarities in voice and behaviour; split as separate genus, based mainly on several uniquely derived differences in syringeal morphology. See also Tyrannus (below).

Genus TyrannusSpecies listFamily plate   Lacépède, 1799

Based on molecular data#R#R, forms a group with Myiozetetes, Empidonomus and Griseotyrannus, and probably also Conopias and Phelpsia. Close relationship with Empidonomus and Griseotyrannus supported by conspicuous notching on inner webs of outer primaries in all three genera. As currently constituted, present genus may be polyphyletic#R; more complete study needed.

Tribe Myiarchini
Genus RhytipternaSpecies listFamily plate   Reichenbach, 1850

Placed by early authors in Cotingidae, with supposed close relationship to Laniocera and Lipaugus. Well-supported anatomical evidence, however, indicates that it is a tyrannid, having close affinities to Casiornis, Sirystes and Myiarchus; DNA studies#R#R support this grouping, and suggest that present genus and Casiornis are sisters.

Genus CasiornisSpecies listFamily plate   Des Murs, 1856

Probably sister to Rhytipterna (see above). In past, placed in Cotingidae.

Genus SirystesSpecies listFamily plate   Cabanis & Heine, 1860#R

In past, placed in Cotingidae, but internal morphology (syrinx, nasal capsule) and nesting behaviour indicate that it is a tyrannid, and is allied to other members of Myiarchini (see Rhytipterna, above).

Genus MyiarchusSpecies listFamily plate   Cabanis, 1844

Phylogenetic study based on mtDNA#R found that, with exception of M. semirufus, this genus comprises two clades, one of predominantly Caribbean and Central and North American taxa, the other of South American taxa. See also Rhytipterna (above).

Subfamily Fluvicolinae
Tribe Fluvicolini
Genus ColoniaSpecies listFamily plate   J. E. Gray, 1827

Affinities uncertain; further study required. Sometimes included in clade of Alectrurus (see page 200).

Genus MyiophobusSpecies listFamily plate   Reichenbach, 1850

Apparently paraphyletic, with M. flavicans, M. phoenicomitra, M. roraimae and presumably M. inornatus probably closest to Ochthoeca, and requiring a new genus name#R; type species of present genus is M. fasciatus. Three previously included species already transferred to Nephelomyias (see page 170).

Genus SilvicultrixSpecies listFamily plate   W. E. Lanyon, 1986

Has normally been included in Ochthoeca, but recent DNA data#R support its separation, placing it as sister to Colorhamphus; original split based on morphology of syrinx and nasal septum, backed up by details of plumage and nesting behaviour#R.

Genus ColorhamphusSpecies listFamily plate   Sundevall, 1872

Sometimes merged with Ochthoeca, to which it appears morphologically closest, but see Silvicultrix (above); in past, sometimes thought to be related to Mecocerculus or Elaenia.

Genus OchthoecaSpecies listFamily plate   Cabanis, 1847

See Silvicultrix (above).

Genus SublegatusSpecies listFamily plate   P. L. Sclater & Salvin, 1868
Genus PyrocephalusSpecies listFamily plate   Gould, 1838#R

See Alectrurus (below); also Knipolegus (below).

Genus FluvicolaSpecies listFamily plate   Swainson, 1827

See Alectrurus (below).

Genus ArundinicolaSpecies listFamily plate   d’Orbigny, 1840

Close to Fluvicola and sometimes merged with it, but anatomical and behavioural details suggest separate treatment more appropriate. See also Alectrurus (below).

Genus GubernetesSpecies listFamily plate   Such, 1825

See Alectrurus (below). Anatomical considerations indicate that closest relatives may be the somewhat similar Muscipipra and, perhaps, the very different Neoxolmis.

Genus MuscipipraSpecies listFamily plate   Lesson, 1831

Relationships uncertain; anatomical studies suggest closest ally as Gubernetes (and perhaps Neoxolmis), a view supported by reanalysis#R of published data on general appearance, voice, behaviour, syringeal anatomy, and scant breeding information. See also Alectrurus (below).

Genus AlectrurusSpecies listFamily plate   Vieillot, 1816

Based on recent phylogenetic studies#R#R#R, forms a well-supported clade with Pyrocephalus, Fluvicola, Arundinicola, Gubernetes and perhaps Muscipipra (not included in analyses); Colonia might also belong here.

Tribe Xolmiini
Genus LessoniaSpecies listFamily plate   Swainson, 1832

See Knipolegus (below).

Genus HymenopsSpecies listFamily plate   Lesson, 1828

See Knipolegus (below); in one study, found to be nested within Knipolegus, which would thus be paraphyletic#R.

Genus KnipolegusSpecies listFamily plate   Boie, 1826

Together with Lessonia and Hymenops forms a well-supported clade#R#R which was previously also considered to include Pyrocephalus#R.

Genus SatrapaSpecies listFamily plate   Strickland, 1844

Appears to be closest to Muscisaxicola, and perhaps basal to an “austral and high Andean clade”, which also includes Cnemarchus, Polioxolmis, Xolmis, Agriornis, Neoxolmis and Myiotheretes#R#R. Has sometimes been grouped with Ochthoeca salvini (formerly separated as Tumbezia) and Myiozetetes on basis of plumage similarities, but nest type, egg coloration and syringeal morphology provide no obvious taxonomic clues.

Genus MuscisaxicolaSpecies listFamily plate   d’Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837

See Satrapa (above).

Genus CnemarchusSpecies listFamily plate   Ridgway, 1905

See Satrapa (above). In past, sometimes merged into Myiotheretes or Xolmis.

Genus PolioxolmisSpecies listFamily plate   W. E. Lanyon, 1986

See Satrapa (above). Formerly included in Cnemarchus or Xolmis, and sometimes grouped with Myiotheretes; syringeal and other morphological evidence supports separation as monospecific genus.

Genus XolmisSpecies listFamily plate   Boie, 1826

See Satrapa (above). Incorporates Pyrope and Heteroxolmis.

Genus AgriornisSpecies listFamily plate   Gould, 1839

See Satrapa (above).

Genus NeoxolmisSpecies listFamily plate   Hellmayr, 1927

See Satrapa (above). Previously placed in Myiotheretes or Xolmis; syringeal morphology most similar to that of otherwise different Gubernetes and Muscipipra.

Genus MyiotheretesSpecies listFamily plate   Reichenbach, 1850

See Satrapa (above). Sometimes placed near Gubernetes and Muscipipra, on basis of anatomical and morphological characters. Has frequently been treated as incorporating Polioxolmis and Cnemarchus.

Tribe Contopini
Genus OchthornisSpecies listFamily plate   P. L. Sclater, 1888

Probably sister to pairing of Cnemotriccus and Lathrotriccus#R. Has sometimes been merged into Ochthoeca, but differs notably in anatomy and morphology#R, as well as behaviour and habitat.

Genus CnemotriccusSpecies listFamily plate   Hellmayr, 1927

Probably sister to Lathrotriccus#R.

Genus AphanotriccusSpecies listFamily plate   Ridgway, 1905

Close to Lathrotriccus#R, and has been considered its sister#R.

Genus LathrotriccusSpecies listFamily plate   W. E. Lanyon & S. M. Lanyon, 1986

Probably sister to Cnemotriccus#R, and also close to Aphanotriccus#R. Formerly included in Empidonax.

Genus MitrephanesSpecies listFamily plate   Coues, 1882

Forms a clade with Sayornis, Empidonax and Contopus#R#R, as part of assemblage already recognized on anatomical grounds#R.

Genus SayornisSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1854

See Mitrephanes (above).

Genus EmpidonaxSpecies listFamily plate   Cabanis, 1855

See Mitrephanes (above). Phylogenetic studies#R#R indicate that this genus contains four distinct clades, a result followed here.

Genus ContopusSpecies listFamily plate   Cabanis, 1855

See Mitrephanes (above).

Genus XenotriccusSpecies listFamily plate   Dwight & Griscom, 1927

Affinities uncertain, current placement provisional#R.

Genus MenuraSpecies listFamily plate   Latham, 1801#R

Sister to Atrichornis#R.

Family Atrichornithidae (Scrub-birds)Family species listFamily plate
Genus AtrichornisSpecies listFamily plate   Stejneger, 1885

Sister to Menura#R.

Family Ptilonorhynchidae (Bowerbirds)Family species listFamily plate

Traditionally grouped with Paradisaeidae, but now considered to belong among “basal oscines”, being sister to Climacteridae#R.

Genus AiluroedusSpecies listFamily plate   Cabanis, 1851
Genus ScenopoeetesSpecies listFamily plate   Coues, 1891
Genus ArchboldiaSpecies listFamily plate   Rand, 1940

Sometimes merged into Amblyornis.

Genus AmblyornisSpecies listFamily plate   Elliot, 1872
Genus PrionoduraSpecies listFamily plate   De Vis, 1883

Sometimes merged with Amblyornis.

Genus SericulusSpecies listFamily plate   Swainson, 1825
Genus PtilonorhynchusSpecies listFamily plate   Kuhl, 1820
Genus ChlamyderaSpecies listFamily plate   Gould, 1837
Family Climacteridae (Australasian Treecreepers)Family species listFamily plate
Genus CormobatesSpecies listFamily plate   Mathews, 1922

Previously merged into Climacteris, but differs in structure (e.g. bill shape, leg length, sole pads, skull, secondaries), egg coloration, plumage (juvenile characteristics, sexual dimorphism) and behaviour; generic separation corroborated by molecular evidence.

Genus ClimacterisSpecies listFamily plate   Temminck, 1820
Family Maluridae (Fairy-wrens)Family species listFamily plate
Subfamily Malurinae
Genus SipodotusSpecies listFamily plate   Mathews, 1928

Forms a clade with Clytomyias and Chenorhamphus, based on DNA study#R.

Genus ClytomyiasSpecies listFamily plate   Sharpe, 1879

See Sipodotus (above).

Genus ChenorhamphusSpecies listFamily plate   Oustalet, 1878

See Sipodotus (above).

Genus MalurusSpecies listFamily plate   Vieillot, 1816

On basis of genetic studies#R#R, sister to a group that includes Clytomyias and Chenorhamphus.

Genus StipiturusSpecies listFamily plate   Lesson, 1831

Sister to Malurus and Clytomyias, based on recent genetic study#R.

Subfamily Amytornithinae
Genus AmytornisSpecies listFamily plate   Stejneger, 1885

Recent analysis#R proposes division of species into five subgenera.

Family Dasyornithidae (Bristlebirds)Family species listFamily plate
Genus DasyornisSpecies listFamily plate   Vigors & Horsfield, 1827
Family Meliphagidae (Honeyeaters)Family species listFamily plate

Internal sequence based mainly on findings of recent phylogenetic studies#R#R, with a few modifications#R#R.

Genus MyzaSpecies listFamily plate   A. B. Meyer & Wiglesworth, 1895

Recent genetic analysis#R places this genus in a basal position, as sister to all other genera in the family.

Genus CissomelaSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1854

Basal to a clade also containing Trichodere, Phylidonyris and Lichmera#R#R. In past, together with Sugomel, often subsumed into Certhionyx, but DNA data#R#R#R show these to represent three separate clades.

Genus TrichodereSpecies listFamily plate   North, 1912

In past, often subsumed into Lichmera, or even Meliphaga.

Genus PhylidonyrisSpecies listFamily plate   Lesson, 1830
Genus LichmeraSpecies listFamily plate   Cabanis, 1851
Genus EntomyzonSpecies listFamily plate   Swainson, 1825

Sister to Melithreptus, as confirmed by multilocus phylogenetic analysis#R.

Genus MelithreptusSpecies listFamily plate   Vieillot, 1816

Sister to Entomyzon, as confirmed by multilocus phylogenetic analysis#R.

Genus NesoptilotisSpecies listFamily plate   Mathews, 1913

Previously included in Lichenostomus, but DNA data#R#R show that such treatment renders that genus polyphyletic.

Genus MeliarchusSpecies listFamily plate   Salvadori, 1880

Appears to belong to a central Polynesian radiation that also includes Guadalcanaria, Meliphacator, Gymnomyza and Foulehaio#R. In past, sometimes lumped into Melidectes (see page 242), and/or linked with monotypic Acanthagenys (see page 238).

Genus GuadalcanariaSpecies listFamily plate   E. J. O. Hartert, 1929

See Meliarchus (above). In past, variously placed in Meliphaga or Lichenostomus; sometimes considered close to Glycifohia (herein subsumed into Gliciphila).

Genus MeliphacatorSpecies listFamily plate   Mathews, 1930

See Meliarchus (above). Previously included in Xanthotis, and sometimes further subsumed into Meliphaga; alternatively placed in Foulehaio#R. Recent molecular analysis#R indicates that it is not closely related to Xanthotis or Foulehaio.

Genus GymnomyzaSpecies listFamily plate   Reichenow, 1914

See Meliarchus (above). In past, suggested as being most closely related to Melidectes.

Genus FoulehaioSpecies listFamily plate   Reichenbach, 1852

See Meliarchus (above).

Genus XanthotisSpecies listFamily plate   Reichenbach, 1852

Forms a clade with Plectorhyncha, Grantiella, Melitograis and Philemon#R#R. In past, sometimes subsumed into Meliphaga.

Genus PlectorhynchaSpecies listFamily plate   Gould, 1838

Closely allied to morphologically dissimilar Grantiella, based on molecular studies; see also Xanthotis (above).

Genus GrantiellaSpecies listFamily plate   Mathews, 1911

See Plectorhyncha (above) and Xanthotis (above). In past, sometimes subsumed into Conopophila.

Genus MelitograisSpecies listFamily plate   Sundevall, 1872

Often included in Philemon, to which it is closely related; see also Xanthotis (above).

Genus PhilemonSpecies listFamily plate   Vieillot, 1816

See Melitograis (above) and Xanthotis (above).

Genus SugomelSpecies listFamily plate   Mathews, 1922

Forms a clade with Vosea and Myzomela#R#R; previously merged into latter. In past, together with Cissomela, often subsumed into Certhionyx, but DNA data#R#R#R show these to represent three separate clades.

Genus VoseaSpecies listFamily plate   Gilliard, 1960

Previously placed in Melidectes, but DNA data#R indicate that it is not closely related to that genus and is, instead, sister to Myzomela. See also Sugomel (above).

Genus MyzomelaSpecies listFamily plate   Vigors & Horsfield, 1827

See Sugomel (above).

Genus AcanthorhynchusSpecies listFamily plate   Gould, 1837

Forms a clade with Certhionyx, Prosthemadera, Anthornis and Pycnopygius, as confirmed by recent genetic data#R#R.

Genus CerthionyxSpecies listFamily plate   Lesson, 1830

See Acanthorhynchus (above). In past, treated as including Cissomela and Sugomel, but DNA studies#R#R#R show that these represent three separate clades.

Genus ProsthemaderaSpecies listFamily plate   G. R. Gray, 1840

Sister to Anthornis, based on genetic data#R. See Acanthorhynchus (above).

Genus AnthornisSpecies listFamily plate   G. R. Gray, 1840

Sister to Prosthemadera, based on genetic data#R. See also Acanthorhynchus (above).

Genus PycnopygiusSpecies listFamily plate   Salvadori, 1880

See Acanthorhynchus (above).

Genus GliciphilaSpecies listFamily plate   Swainson, 1837

See Ptiloprora (below). Type species recently found to be nested in midst of the two species thereto separated in Glycifohia, resulting in merging of Glycifohia into present genus#R. Previously subsumed into Phylidonyris#R. Spelling sometimes erroneously emended to Glyciphila.

Genus GlycichaeraSpecies listFamily plate   Salvadori, 1878

See Ptiloprora (below). In past, sometimes placed in Timeliopsis (see page 234).

Genus PtiloproraSpecies listFamily plate   De Vis, 1894

Forms a clade with Gliciphila and Glycichaera, as confirmed by recent genetic data#R#R.

Genus StresemanniaSpecies listFamily plate   Meise, 1950

Forms a clade with Ramsayornis and Conopophila#R#R; this clade is sister to another that includes Melipotes (see below).

Genus RamsayornisSpecies listFamily plate   Mathews, 1912

See Stresemannia (above).

Genus ConopophilaSpecies listFamily plate   Reichenbach, 1852

See Stresemannia (above).

Genus AshbyiaSpecies listFamily plate   North, 1911

Sister to Epthianura, as confirmed by genetic data#R; these two were previously placed in Acanthizidae or separated in their own family, Epthianuridae (as in HBW), but more recent DNA analyses indicate that they belong with the honeyeaters. See also Melipotes (below).

Genus EpthianuraSpecies listFamily plate   Gould, 1838

See Ashbyia (above) and Melipotes (below). Name often misspelt Ephthianura.

Genus MelilestesSpecies listFamily plate   Salvadori, 1876

Close to Epthianura and Timeliopsis. See also Melipotes (below).

Genus TimeliopsisSpecies listFamily plate   Salvadori, 1876

See Melipotes (below).

Genus MacgregoriaSpecies listFamily plate   De Vis#R#R, 1897

Formerly considered to be a bird-of-paradise (Paradisaeidae), but molecular analyses indicate that this is a honeyeater, closely related to Melipotes (which see, below).

Genus MelipotesSpecies listFamily plate   P. L. Sclater, 1874

Forms a clade with Ashbyia, Epthianura, Melilestes, Timeliopsis and Macgregoria#R#R; this clade is sister to another that includes Stresemannia (see above). Closely related to Macgregoria.

Genus OreornisSpecies listFamily plate   van Oort, 1910

Relationships obscure; sometimes merged with Lichenostomus or Meliphaga. Genetic study required. See Meliphaga (below).

Genus MeliphagaSpecies listFamily plate   Lewin, 1808

Previously included Microptilotis, but molecular analysis#R supports recognition of separate genera due to ancient divergence. These two form a clade perhaps also including Oreornis, which remains unsampled in molecular analyses.

Genus MicroptilotisSpecies listFamily plate   Mathews, 1912

Until recently, included in Meliphaga (see above).

Genus StomioperaSpecies listFamily plate   Reichenbach, 1852

Until recently included in Lichenostomus, but genetic data#R support its separation. Appears to form its own clade#R, being closest to those of Manorina (see below) and Meliphaga (see above).

Genus BolemoreusSpecies listFamily plate   Nyári & Joseph, 2011

Previously included in Lichenostomus, and then in “Caligavis subgroup”; but genetic data#R support treatment in a separate genus, which is sister to pairing of Acanthagenys and Anthochaera. See also Manorina (below).

Genus AcanthagenysSpecies listFamily plate   Gould, 1838

See Manorina (below). In past, sometimes merged into Anthochaera.

Genus AnthochaeraSpecies listFamily plate   Vigors & Horsfield, 1827

See Manorina (below). Includes previously recognized genus Zanthomiza.

Genus GavicalisSpecies listFamily plate   Schodde & Mason, 1999

Previously treated as a subgenus within Lichenostomus, but molecular data#R support treatment as a full genus. Sister to Ptilotula. See also Manorina (below).

Genus PtilotulaSpecies listFamily plate   Mathews, 1912

Sister to Gavicalis, both previously treated as subgenera within Lichenostomus. See also Manorina (below).

Genus PurnellaSpecies listFamily plate   Mathews, 1914

Sister to Caligavis#R#R. Previously included in Phylidonyris, but genetic study#R shows them not to be closely related. See also Manorina (below).

Genus CaligavisSpecies listFamily plate   Iredale, 1956

Sister to Purnella#R#R. Previously treated as a subgenus of Lichenostomus, but molecular data#R support treatment as a full genus. See also Manorina (below).

Genus LichenostomusSpecies listFamily plate   Cabanis, 1851

See Manorina (below). Previously included (mostly as subgenera) Nesoptilotis, Stomiopera, Bolemoreus, Gavicalis, Ptilotula and Caligavis, but this arrangement was shown to be polyphyletic#R#R.

Genus ManorinaSpecies listFamily plate   Vieillot, 1818

Sister to Melidectes#R. These two belong to a clade that also includes Lichenostomus, Caligavis, Purnella, Ptilotula, Gavicalis, Anthochaera, Acanthagenys and Bolemoreus#R.

Genus MelidectesSpecies listFamily plate   P. L. Sclater, 1874

Sister to Manorina#R (which see, above). Includes Melionyx; previously considered to include Vosea (see page 226).

Family Pardalotidae (Pardalotes)Family species listFamily plate
Genus PardalotusSpecies listFamily plate   Vieillot, 1816
Family Acanthizidae (Thornbills)Family species listFamily plate
Subfamily Pachycareinae

Name selected by First Reviser in preference over simultaneously published Oreoscopinae#R.

Genus PachycareSpecies listFamily plate   Gould, 1876

Sister to Oreoscopus, based on DNA data#R. Previously placed in Pachycephalidae, and was alternatively suggested to be close to Petroicidae.

Genus OreoscopusSpecies listFamily plate   North, 1905

See Pachycare (above). In past, sometimes merged into Crateroscelis (see page 248).

Subfamily Acanthizinae
Genus GerygoneSpecies listFamily plate   Gould, 1841
Genus SmicrornisSpecies listFamily plate   Gould, 1843
Genus PycnoptilusSpecies listFamily plate   Gould, 1851
Genus PyrrholaemusSpecies listFamily plate   Gould, 1841

Incorporates Chthonicola.

Genus CalamanthusSpecies listFamily plate   Gould, 1838

Incorporates Hylacola, following the findings of molecular study#R.

Genus OrigmaSpecies listFamily plate   Gould, 1838

Sister to Crateroscelis#R.

Genus CrateroscelisSpecies listFamily plate   Sharpe, 1883

Sister to Origma#R.

Genus SericornisSpecies listFamily plate   Gould, 1838
Genus AcanthornisSpecies listFamily plate   Legge, 1887

Rather surprisingly, found to be sister to Aphelocephala, based on genetic study#R. Previously merged into Sericornis.

Genus AphelocephalaSpecies listFamily plate   Oberholser, 1899

Sister to Acanthornis (see above).

Genus AcanthizaSpecies listFamily plate   Vigors & Horsfield, 1827
Family Orthonychidae (Logrunners)Family species listFamily plate
Genus OrthonyxSpecies listFamily plate   Temminck, 1820
Family Pomatostomidae (Australasian Babblers)Family species listFamily plate
Genus GarritornisSpecies listFamily plate   Iredale, 1956

Previously merged into Pomatostomus, but differs in behaviour, bill and plumage coloration, and nest type (pendent).

Genus PomatostomusSpecies listFamily plate   Cabanis, 1851
Family Mohouidae (Mohouas)Family species listFamily plate

Previously included variously in Paridae, Timaliidae, Orthonychidae, Campephagidae, Sylviidae, Maluridae or Acanthizidae; in recent times, usually in Pachycephalidae. Several studies suggest it has no close relatives, and is best treated as a separate family, basal to core corvoids#R#R#R.

Genus MohouaSpecies listFamily plate   Lesson, 1837#R

Incorporates Finschia#R.

Family Eulacestomidae (Ploughbill)Family species listFamily plate

Relationships uncertain#R. May be sister to Neosittidae, but somewhat distantly related#R#R; traditionally placed in Pachycephalidae.

Genus EulacestomaSpecies listFamily plate   De Vis, 1894
Family Neosittidae (Sittellas)Family species listFamily plate

Present family-group name has priority over Daphoenosittidae, even though genus-group name Daphoenositta has priority over Neositta.

Genus DaphoenosittaSpecies listFamily plate   De Vis, 1897

Includes Neositta.

Family Oriolidae (Old World Orioles)Family species listFamily plate
Subfamily Pitohuinae
Genus PitohuiSpecies listFamily plate   Lesson, 1831

Previously placed in Pachycephalidae, where it was considered to include all species now relocated in Melanorectes (see page 262) and Pseudorectes (see page 270), as well as Ornorectes (Oreoicidae, see page 260). Recently shown to belong in present family, in which it is sister to Sphecotheres#R#R#R.

Subfamily Sphecotherinae
Genus SphecotheresSpecies listFamily plate   Vieillot, 1816

Original description included two different spellings, “Sphecotheres” and “Sphecotera”; former selected as valid by First Reviser#R.

Subfamily Oriolinae
Genus OriolusSpecies listFamily plate   Linnaeus, 1766

Includes Mimeta and Xanthonotus.

Family Paramythiidae (Painted Berrypeckers)Family species listFamily plate

Affinities long uncertain: traditionally placed in Dicaeidae, and at one stage suggested to be aberrant Pycnonotidae, while Oreocharis was initially thought to belong with Paridae; more recently, both genera included in Melanocharitidae. However, well differentiated from all of these families in external morphology and aspects of nidification, and genetic analyses also support treatment as a separate family, with closest allies variously suggested to be Oriolidae, Psophodidae or Vireonidae#R#R#R.

Genus OreocharisSpecies listFamily plate   Salvadori, 1876
Genus ParamythiaSpecies listFamily plate   De Vis, 1892

Closely related to Oreocharis#R.

Family Oreoicidae (Australo-Papuan Bellbirds)Family species listFamily plate

Three monospecific genera previously scattered within Pachycephalidae, where no clear links were agreed; now shown to be closely related to each other#R#R, but nearest relatives of the group much debated, with proposals including Oriolidae, Paramythiidae, Pachycephalidae, Rhagologidae, Campephagidae, Malaconotidae, Artamidae, Cinclosomatidae and Falcunculidae#R.

Genus AleadryasSpecies listFamily plate   Iredale, 1956

In past, often subsumed into Pachycephala.

Genus OrnorectesSpecies listFamily plate   Iredale, 1956

Previously included in Pitohui.

Genus OreoicaSpecies listFamily plate   Gould, 1838

Sometimes placed close to Colluricincla, as it resembles C. harmonica in size and shape, and females of the two are similar to each other in plumage.

Family Cinclosomatidae (Quail-thrushes and Jewel-babblers)Family species listFamily plate

Taxonomic position historically uncertain, and in past typically placed in a giant Muscicapidae, close to Timaliidae; there, it was grouped in a dubious assemblage with species now widely scattered in Orthonychidae, Psophodidae, Ifritidae, Melampittidae and Eupetidae#R. Genetic studies suggest closest relatives may be Paramythiidae, Psophodidae or Falcunculidae#R#R.

Genus PtilorrhoaSpecies listFamily plate   J. L. Peters, 1940

Sister to Cinclosoma, based on phylogenetic study#R.

Genus CinclosomaSpecies listFamily plate   Vigors & Horsfield, 1827

Sister to Ptilorrhoa, based on phylogenetic study#R.

Family Falcunculidae (Shrike-tits)Family species listFamily plate

In the past, normally merged with Pachycephalidae; relationships remain uncertain, and other possible allies variously suggested as Cinclosomatidae, Psophodidae or Eulacestomidae#R#R.

Genus FalcunculusSpecies listFamily plate   Vieillot, 1816
Family Pachycephalidae (Whistlers)Family species listFamily plate
Genus MelanorectesSpecies listFamily plate   Sharpe, 1877

Previously placed in Pitohui (see page 254), but genetic studies#R#R#R indicate that it is sister to Coracornis and Pachycephala.

Genus CoracornisSpecies listFamily plate   Riley, 1918
Genus PachycephalaSpecies listFamily plate   Vigors, 1825

Internal sequence revised based on recent molecular findings#R#R#R but with additional modifications, notably due to partial disbanding of traditional expanded P. pectoralis (which see, page 268).

Genus PseudorectesSpecies listFamily plate   Sharpe, 1877

Previously included in Pitohui (see page 254). Sister to Colluricincla, as indicated by recent genetic analyses#R#R#R#R; these two sometimes awarded a separate family, Colluricinclidae.

Genus ColluricinclaSpecies listFamily plate   Vigors & Horsfield, 1827

See Pseudorectes (above) and Coracornis sanghirensis (page 262). Name Collyriocincla is an unjustified emendation, proposed separately by Sharpe and then Salvin.

Family Psophodidae (Whipbirds and Wedgebills)Family species listFamily plate

Taxonomic position historically uncertain (see Cinclosomatidae, page 260). Genetic studies suggest closest relatives may be Paramythiidae or Vireonidae#R#R.

Genus AndrophobusSpecies listFamily plate   E. J. O. Hartert & Paludan, 1934

Sister to Psophodes, as confirmed by phylogenetic study#R; plumage patterns likewise suggest close relationship.

Genus PsophodesSpecies listFamily plate   Vigors & Horsfield, 1827
Family Vireonidae (Vireos)Family species listFamily plate

Internal arrangement heavily modified, based on recent genetic study#R, along with addition of Asian genera Pteruthius and Erpornis (see below).

Genus PteruthiusSpecies listFamily plate   Swainson, 1832

Traditionally placed in Timaliidae, but genetic studies indicate that it is not closely related to that family#R, and belongs instead in Vireonidae#R.

Genus ErpornisSpecies listFamily plate   Hodgson, 1844

Traditionally placed in Timaliidae, either in Yuhina (page 508) or occasionally in Stachyris (page 528), but not closely related to these groups, as confirmed by molecular evidence#R; recent work#R#R places this taxon in Vireonidae.

Genus CyclarhisSpecies listFamily plate   Swainson, 1824

In past, occasionally placed in its own family, Cyclarhidae; within present family, sometimes awarded its own subfamily, Cyclarhinae.

Genus HylophilusSpecies listFamily plate   Temminck, 1822

Position relative to Vireolanius unclear, and latter may be more basal#R. Previously included Pachysylvia (page 276) and Tunchiornis (page 274), but recent work shows that arrangement to be polyphyletic#R.

Genus VireolaniusSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1850

Early offshoot within Vireonidae, along with Cyclarhis and Hylophilus (which see, above), as confirmed by recent molecular study#R; sometimes awarded its own subfamily, Vireolaniinae, or in past its own family, Vireolaniidae.

Genus TunchiornisSpecies listFamily plate   Slager & Klicka, 2014

Until recently included in Hylophilus (see above).

Genus PachysylviaSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1850

Until recently included in Hylophilus (see above); one species imported from Vireo.

Genus VireoSpecies listFamily plate   Vieillot, 1808

Incorporates Melodivireo, Lawrencia and Neochloe; one species imported from Hylophilus.

Family Campephagidae (Cuckooshrikes)Family species listFamily plate
Subfamily Pericrocotinae
Genus PericrocotusSpecies listFamily plate   Boie, 1826
Subfamily Campephaginae
Genus CoracinaSpecies listFamily plate   Vieillot, 1816

Sister to Ceblepyris, on basis of genetic data#R.

Genus CeblepyrisSpecies listFamily plate   Cuvier, 1816

Previously included in Coracina, to which it is sister#R.

Genus CampephagaSpecies listFamily plate   Vieillot, 1816
Genus LobotosSpecies listFamily plate   Reichenbach, 1850

Often merged with Campephaga, but separated on basis of colourful plumage, facial wattles, and sexual plumage similarity.

Genus CampochaeraSpecies listFamily plate   Sharpe, 1878
Genus MalindangiaSpecies listFamily plate   Mearns, 1907

Previously included in Coracina, but genetic data suggest it may be sister to Edolisoma and Lalage#R#R.

Genus EdolisomaSpecies listFamily plate   Jacquinot & Pucheran, 1853

Previously included in Coracina, but genetic evidence#R indicates that separate treatment is appropriate.

Genus CelebesicaSpecies listFamily plate   Strand, 1928

Previously included in Coracina, but genetic data#R indicate that separation is more appropriate. Older name Celebesia is preoccupied by an insect genus.

Genus CyanograucalusSpecies listFamily plate   Hartlaub, 1861

Previously included in Coracina, but genetic data#R indicate that it merits separate status.

Genus LalageSpecies listFamily plate   Boie, 1826
Family Rhagologidae (Berryhunter)Family species listFamily plate

Formerly included in Pachycephalidae, and indeed long placed within Pachycephala; genetic studies#R#R#R reveal that the single species belongs elsewhere, being close to Artamidae and meriting its own monospecific family#R.

Genus RhagologusSpecies listFamily plate   Stresemann & Paludan, 1934
Family Artamidae (Woodswallows and Butcherbirds)Family species listFamily plate

Incorporates Cracticidae, whose species now constitute subfamilies Peltopsinae and Cracticinae.

Subfamily Peltopsinae
Genus PeltopsSpecies listFamily plate   Wagler, 1829
Subfamily Cracticinae
Genus StreperaSpecies listFamily plate   Lesson, 1831

Genetic data#R do not clarify relationships among species within present genus.

Genus MelloriaSpecies listFamily plate   Mathews, 1912

Previously included in Cracticus, but DNA evidence suggests it is most closely related to Gymnorhina, to which it is sister#R.

Genus GymnorhinaSpecies listFamily plate   G. R. Gray, 1840

Sister to Melloria. Often included in Cracticus, a treatment largely supported by recent molecular study#R, but substantial differences in morphology, ecology and behaviour#R suggest recognition of separate genus.

Genus CracticusSpecies listFamily plate   Vieillot, 1816

See Gymnorhina and Melloria (above).

Subfamily Artaminae
Genus ArtamusSpecies listFamily plate   Vieillot, 1816
Family Machaerirhynchidae (Boatbills)Family species listFamily plate

Traditionally placed in Monarchidae but amply demonstrated by phylogenetic studies to belong instead within a well-supported clade of African and Australasian families, among which it may be closest to Artamidae, Rhagologidae or Aegithinidae#R.

Genus MachaerirhynchusSpecies listFamily plate   Gould, 1851
Family Vangidae (Vangas)Family species listFamily plate
Subfamily Vanginae
Genus NewtoniaSpecies listFamily plate   Schlegel#R, 1867

Previously placed in Sylviidae, but recent genetic studies situate it within present family#R#R.

Genus TylasSpecies listFamily plate   Hartlaub, 1862

In past, variously placed in Pycnonotidae, Oriolidae,Turdidae or Sturnidae. Recent molecular research indicates that it belongs in present family.

Genus CalicalicusSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1854

Perhaps sister to Tylas#R.

Genus HyposittaSpecies listFamily plate   A. Newton, 1881

In past, sometimes separated in monotypic Hyposittidae, or placed in Paridae, but morphological and anatomical features, and genetic data#R, indicate that inclusion in present family is more appropriate.

Genus LeptopterusSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1854
Genus CyanolaniusSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1854

Sometimes subsumed into Leptopterus.

Genus MystacornisSpecies listFamily plate   Sharpe, 1870

Previously placed in Timaliidae, but genetic data#R place it clearly in present family.

Genus PseudobiasSpecies listFamily plate   Sharpe, 1870

Previously placed in Platysteiridae, but several modern studies#R#R#R indicate that it belongs in present family.

Genus VangaSpecies listFamily plate   Vieillot, 1816

May be closest to Schetba and Euryceros, based on recent molecular analyses#R#R.

Genus SchetbaSpecies listFamily plate   Lesson, 1831

See Vanga (above) and Euryceros (below).

Genus EurycerosSpecies listFamily plate   Lesson, 1831

In past, sometimes separated in monotypic Eurycerotidae; recent molecular analyses#R#R indicate that it may be closest to Schetba and Vanga.

Genus XenopirostrisSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1850

May be closest to Oriolia, Falculea and Artamella, based on recent molecular analyses#R#R.

Genus OrioliaSpecies listFamily plate   I. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1838

See Falculea (below) and Xenopirostris (above).

Genus FalculeaSpecies listFamily plate   I. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1836

Based on recent molecular analyses#R#R sister to Artamella, the two being closest to Oriolia. See also Xenopirostris (above).

Genus ArtamellaSpecies listFamily plate   W. L. Sclater, 1924

Sometimes subsumed into Leptopterus, but recent molecular analyses indicate that it is closest to Falculea (see above).

Subfamily Prionopinae
Genus PrionopsSpecies listFamily plate   Vieillot, 1816

Relationships long uncertain, and in past tentatively associated with Laniidae, Malaconotidae, Vangidae (correctly!), Campephagidae or even Pycnonotidae, and accorded its own family, Prionopidae, in HBW; but genetic data#R call for its placement within Vangidae.

Genus HemipusSpecies listFamily plate   Hodgson, 1844#R

Formerly placed in Campephagidae; molecular data#R confirm it as closest to Tephrodornis.

Genus TephrodornisSpecies listFamily plate   Swainson, 1832

Formerly placed in Campephagidae; closest to Hemipus (see above).

Genus MegabyasSpecies listFamily plate   J. P. Verreaux & J. B. É. Verreaux, 1855

Sometimes treated as a subgenus of Bias; in recent decades, these two have normally been placed in Platysteiridae.

Genus BiasSpecies listFamily plate   Lesson, 1831#R
Genus PhilentomaSpecies listFamily plate   Eyton, 1845

Previously placed in Monarchidae, and has also been linked with Malaconotidae; but more recent genetic studies#R#R place it with Tephrodornis and relatives in present family.

Family Platysteiridae (Batises and Wattle-eyes)Family species listFamily plate
Genus LanioturdusSpecies listFamily plate   Waterhouse, 1838

Previously placed in Malaconotidae and has also been linked to Muscicapidae and Prionopidae (latter now in Vangidae); comment in HBW (11: 164) that it may belong in present family now supported by genetic data#R#R, which place it close to Batis.

Genus BatisSpecies listFamily plate   Boie, 1833
Genus DyaphorophyiaSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1854

Formerly subsumed into Platysteira.

Genus PlatysteiraSpecies listFamily plate   Jardine & Selby, 1830
Family Aegithinidae (Ioras)Family species listFamily plate

Traditionally placed alongside Chloropsis and Irena, all three most typically being lumped in Irenidae; genetic work has shown it to be closely related to Malaconotidae and allies#R#R.

Genus AegithinaSpecies listFamily plate   Vieillot, 1816
Family Pityriasidae (Bristlehead)Family species listFamily plate

Affinities uncertain; in past, variously linked to Laniidae, Sturnidae, Vangidae, Timaliidae or others. DNA analysis indicated close affiliation with genera Cracticus, Gymnorhina and Strepera in Artamidae. More recent DNA-sequencing studies#R suggest closest to Malaconotidae; close relationship with both Malaconotidae and Aegithinidae supported by subsequent genetic studies#R#R. Spelling Pityriaseidae (as in HBW) is erroneous#R.

Genus PityriasisSpecies listFamily plate   Lesson, 1839
Family Malaconotidae (Bush-shrikes)Family species listFamily plate

Previously included in Laniidae#R.

Genus MalaconotusSpecies listFamily plate   Swainson, 1824
Genus DryoscopusSpecies listFamily plate   Boie, 1826
Genus BocagiaSpecies listFamily plate   Shelley, 1894

Previously included in Tchagra, but recent genetic investigation#R suggests separate generic treatment. Antichromus is a junior synonym.

Genus TchagraSpecies listFamily plate   Lesson, 1831
Genus NilausSpecies listFamily plate   Swainson, 1827

Has variously been placed in Laniidae, Prionopidae (now in Vangidae) and Muscicapidae; nest and several plumage features very like those of Batis (Platysteiridae), as are white nape and back, fluffy rump and white wingstripe. Duet-singing and some aspects of breeding behaviour, however, are typical of present family.

Genus ChlorophoneusSpecies listFamily plate   Cabanis, 1851

Genus sometimes subsumed into Malaconotus or Telophorus.

Genus LaniariusSpecies listFamily plate   Vieillot, 1816
Genus RhodophoneusSpecies listFamily plate   Heuglin, 1870

Previously subsumed into Telophorus; molecular study#R indicates that the two are sisters.

Genus TelophorusSpecies listFamily plate   Swainson, 1832
Family Rhipiduridae (Fantails)Family species listFamily plate
Genus ChaetorhynchusSpecies listFamily plate   A. B. Meyer, 1874

Previously placed in Dicruridae; phylogenetic studies#R#R show it to be sister to Lamprolia and that both belong in Rhipiduridae; the two may merit a family of their own#R.

Genus LamproliaSpecies listFamily plate   Finsch, 1874

Previously placed in Monarchidae, but found to be sister to Chaetorhynchus (see above).

Genus RhipiduraSpecies listFamily plate   Vigors & Horsfield, 1827
Family Dicruridae (Drongos)Family species listFamily plate
Genus DicrurusSpecies listFamily plate   Vieillot, 1816

Incorporates Chaptia, Bhringa, Dicrachibia, Dissemuroides, Dissemurus and Dissemurulus.

Family Ifritidae (Ifrit)Family species listFamily plate

Relationships unclear, and in past has variously been placed in Orthonychidae, Eupetidae, Maluridae, Monarchidae or others, or in greatly expanded Muscicapidae. Now considered sufficiently distinct to be accorded its own family#R, perhaps closest to Monarchidae, Laniidae, Corvidae, Paradisaeidae and Corcoracidae#R#R#R#R.

Genus IfritaSpecies listFamily plate   Rothschild, 1898
Family Monarchidae (Monarch-flycatchers)Family species listFamily plate
Genus MyiagraSpecies listFamily plate   Vigors & Horsfield, 1827
Genus ArsesSpecies listFamily plate   Lesson, 1831
Genus GrallinaSpecies listFamily plate   Vieillot, 1816

Formerly placed in Corcoracidae, or later in Dicruridae, or alternatively accorded its own family, Grallinidae; now included in Monarchidae, based on genetic data#R#R and further supported by details of skull morphology.

Genus SymposiachrusSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1854

Previously included in Monarcha, but genetic studies#R#R indicate that such treatment renders Monarcha polyphyletic, so separate genera required#R.

Genus CarterornisSpecies listFamily plate   Mathews, 1912

Previously included in Monarcha, but genetic studies#R#R indicate that such treatment renders Monarcha polyphyletic, so separate genera required#R.

Genus ChasiempisSpecies listFamily plate   Cabanis, 1847
Genus PomareaSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1854

Recent phylogenetic analysis#R suggests that this genus, as presently constituted, is paraphyletic; further work needed.

Genus NeolalageSpecies listFamily plate   Mathews, 1928
Genus MayrornisSpecies listFamily plate   Wetmore, 1932
Genus ClytorhynchusSpecies listFamily plate   Elliot, 1870
Genus MonarchaSpecies listFamily plate   Vigors & Horsfield, 1827
Genus MetabolusSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1854

Sometimes subsumed within Monarcha.

Genus TrochocercusSpecies listFamily plate   Cabanis, 1851#R
Genus HypothymisSpecies listFamily plate   Boie, 1826
Genus EutrichomyiasSpecies listFamily plate   Meise, 1939

Morphology, vocalizations and behaviour suggest close affinities with both Hypothymis and Terpsiphone.

Genus TerpsiphoneSpecies listFamily plate   Gloger, 1827
Family Platylophidae (Crested Jay)Family species listFamily plate

Traditionally placed in Corvidae, but morphological study#R and molecular analyses#R#R#R indicate that it is distinct from that family; perhaps sister to Laniidae#R#R, and has been included therein in one recent work#R.

Genus PlatylophusSpecies listFamily plate   Swainson, 1832
Family Laniidae (Shrikes)Family species listFamily plate
Genus CorvinellaSpecies listFamily plate   Lesson, 1831

Previously included Urolestes (see below).

Genus UrolestesSpecies listFamily plate   Cabanis, 1851

Previously subsumed into Corvinella on basis mainly of similarities in morphology (e.g. long tail), vocal communication patterns, and social behaviour, but differences appear too great for the two to be combined#R.

Genus EurocephalusSpecies listFamily plate   A. Smith, 1836

In past, linked with Prionops (see page 298), often in Malaconotidae, but several subsequent studies place it within Laniidae#R.

Genus LaniusSpecies listFamily plate   Linnaeus, 1758
Family Corvidae (Crows)Family species listFamily plate
Genus PlatysmurusSpecies listFamily plate   Reichenbach, 1850

Affinities uncertain; probably one of the most primitive genera of the family, but has received remarkably little study.

Genus TemnurusSpecies listFamily plate   Lesson, 1831
Genus CrypsirinaSpecies listFamily plate   Vieillot, 1816
Genus DendrocittaSpecies listFamily plate   Gould, 1833
Genus PyrrhocoraxSpecies listFamily plate   Tunstall, 1771
Genus UrocissaSpecies listFamily plate   Cabanis, 1851

Has sometimes been included in Cissa (see below).

Genus CissaSpecies listFamily plate   Boie, 1826

Often expanded to encompass Urocissa, but present genus has distinctive appearance.

Genus PerisoreusSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1831

DNA-sequencing indicates that this genus and Cyanopica form unique clades, separate from other corvids; significance of this requires further research, but it suggests that Perisoreus is not very closely related to Garrulus.

Genus CyanopicaSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1850

See Perisoreus (above).

Genus GarrulusSpecies listFamily plate   Brisson, 1760
Genus ZavattariornisSpecies listFamily plate   Moltoni, 1938

Traditionally placed in present family, but shows several atypical features (notably its sucking-lice, Mallophaga) and anatomical peculiarities (mobility of bare facial skin, structure of palate); occasionally separated in monotypic Zavattariornithidae, or more recently included in Sturnidae, but DNA-sequencing analysis supports inclusion in present family. Similar in plumage colour and pattern to Nucifraga columbiana and Podoces panderi, but taxonomic significance doubtful.

Genus PtilostomusSpecies listFamily plate   Swainson, 1837

Long, graduated tail, sociable habits and piping calls suggest, as with Zavattariornis, an affinity with Sturnidae, but DNA-sequencing supports inclusion in present family. Very unusual among passerine genera in having ten (instead of twelve) tail feathers.

Genus PodocesSpecies listFamily plate   J. G. Fischer von Waldheim, 1821
Genus PicaSpecies listFamily plate   Brisson, 1760
Genus NucifragaSpecies listFamily plate   Brisson, 1760
Genus CorvusSpecies listFamily plate   Linnaeus, 1758
Genus CyanolycaSpecies listFamily plate   Cabanis, 1851
Genus GymnorhinusSpecies listFamily plate   Wied, 1841
Genus AphelocomaSpecies listFamily plate   Cabanis, 1851
Genus CyanocittaSpecies listFamily plate   Strickland, 1845
Genus CyanocoraxSpecies listFamily plate   Boie, 1826

Includes Uroleuca, Psilorhinus, Calocitta, Xanthoura and Cissilopha, as recommended in phylogenetic study#R.

Family Melampittidae (Melampittas)Family species listFamily plate

Formerly placed in variety of families, especially Orthonychidae, Eupetidae or Paradisaeidae; differs from last in having downy nestlings and in not feeding them by regurgitation. Recently found to be more distinct and placed in its own family#R, apparently closest to Corcoracidae and Paradisaeidae#R#R.

Genus MelampittaSpecies listFamily plate   Schlegel, 1871
Genus MegalampittaSpecies listFamily plate   Schodde & Christidis, 2014

Recently erected genus#R, differing from Melampitta mainly in body form, plumage and habits.

Family Corcoracidae (Australian Mudnesters)Family species listFamily plate

Previously placed with Grallina in a family Grallinidae, but now established as a separate family, closest to Paradisaeidae and Melampittidae#R#R #R. Family-group name Struthideidae has priority over Corcoracidae, but latter has been formally protected, following application#R to ICZN; in past, both Corcorax and Struthidea were at times considered to constitute monospecific families, so both names were simultaneously in use.

Genus CorcoraxSpecies listFamily plate   Lesson, 1831
Genus StruthideaSpecies listFamily plate   Gould, 1837
Family Paradisaeidae (Birds-of-paradise)Family species listFamily plate
Genus LycocoraxSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1853
Genus PhonygammusSpecies listFamily plate   Lesson & Garnot, 1826

Previously subsumed into Manucodia; separation supported by recent genetic work#R. “Phonygama” is an incorrect subsequent spelling#R.

Genus ManucodiaSpecies listFamily plate   Boddaert, 1783
Genus PteridophoraSpecies listFamily plate   A. B. Meyer, 1894
Genus ParotiaSpecies listFamily plate   Vieillot, 1816
Genus SeleucidisSpecies listFamily plate   Lesson, 1835
Genus DrepanornisSpecies listFamily plate   P. L. Sclater, 1873

Sometimes merged into Epimachus.

Genus SemiopteraSpecies listFamily plate   G. R. Gray, 1859
Genus LophorinaSpecies listFamily plate   Vieillot, 1816

Includes Ptiloris.

Genus EpimachusSpecies listFamily plate   Cuvier, 1816
Genus ParadigallaSpecies listFamily plate   Lesson, 1835

Sometimes included in Astrapia#R, but differs in bright yellow forehead wattles and coloured gape wattles, long narrow bill, and all-black plumage in both sexes; displays and calls also distinct.

Genus AstrapiaSpecies listFamily plate   Vieillot, 1816
Genus CicinnurusSpecies listFamily plate   Vieillot, 1816
Genus ParadisornisSpecies listFamily plate   A. B. Meyer, 1885

Closely allied to Paradisaea, and commonly subsumed into it#R, but distinct in plumage, vocal characters and display behaviour; genetic data#R indicate that the two genera are sisters.

Genus ParadisaeaSpecies listFamily plate   Linnaeus, 1758

Has often been spelt Paradisea, but present spelling formally conserved by ICZN.

Family Callaeidae (New Zealand Wattlebirds)Family species listFamily plate
Genus CallaeasSpecies listFamily plate   J. R. Forster, 1788
Genus PhilesturnusSpecies listFamily plate   I. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1832

Creadion sometimes used for this genus but now formally suppressed, and present name conserved#R.

Family Notiomystidae (Stitchbird)Family species listFamily plate

Traditionally placed in Meliphagidae, but recent DNA studies assign it to a family of its own, close to Callaeidae and Cnemophilidae#R#R, and/or perhaps Petroicidae.

Genus NotiomystisSpecies listFamily plate   Richmond, 1908
Family Melanocharitidae (Berrypeckers and Longbills)Family species listFamily plate

Previously dispersed in other families, berrypeckers in Dicaeidae and longbills in Meliphagidae, but united in a separate family on basis of genetic studies#R#R#R; closest relatives appear to be Cnemophilidae, Notiomystidae and Callaeidae#R#R, perhaps also Petroicidae and Picathartidae#R.

Genus MelanocharisSpecies listFamily plate   P. L. Sclater, 1858
Genus RhamphocharisSpecies listFamily plate   Salvadori, 1876

Closely related to Melanocharis and sometimes merged with it.

Genus OedistomaSpecies listFamily plate   Salvadori, 1876

Sometimes subsumed into Toxorhamphus, despite the fact that it pre-dates it by almost 40 years.

Genus ToxorhamphusSpecies listFamily plate   Stresemann, 1914
Family Cnemophilidae (Satinbirds)Family species listFamily plate

Previously included in Paradisaeidae, but genetic studies place this ancient group as a separate family, probably closest to Callaeidae and Notiomystidae or to Petroicidae and Picathartidae#R.

Genus CnemophilusSpecies listFamily plate   De Vis, 1890
Genus LoboparadiseaSpecies listFamily plate   Rothschild, 1896
Family Picathartidae (Picathartes)Family species listFamily plate

In past, linked with Corvidae or Timaliidae, but genetic studies place it closest to Eupetidae and Chaetopidae#R#R.

Genus PicathartesSpecies listFamily plate   Lesson, 1828
Family Eupetidae (Rail-babbler)Family species listFamily plate

DNA studies support close relationship with African families Chaetopidae and Picathartidae#R#R.

Genus EupetesSpecies listFamily plate   Temminck, 1831
Family Chaetopidae (Rockjumpers)Family species listFamily plate

In past, normally linked with Timaliidae, but genetic studies place it closest to Eupetidae and Picathartidae#R#R#R#R.

Genus ChaetopsSpecies listFamily plate   Swainson, 1832
Family Petroicidae (Australasian Robins)Family species listFamily plate
Subfamily Amalocichlinae
Genus AmalocichlaSpecies listFamily plate   De Vis, 1892

Formerly placed in Turdidae.

Subfamily Pachycephalopsinae
Genus PachycephalopsisSpecies listFamily plate   Salvadori, 1879
Subfamily Petroicinae
Genus EugerygoneSpecies listFamily plate   Finsch, 1901

Genetic data#R indicate close association with Petroica.

Genus PetroicaSpecies listFamily plate   Swainson, 1829#R
Subfamily Microecinae
Genus KempiellaSpecies listFamily plate   Mathews, 1913

Previously included in Microeca, but resurrected based on findings of recent molecular analysis#R.

Genus DevioecaSpecies listFamily plate   Mathews, 1925

Previously included in Microeca, but resurrected based on findings of recent molecular analysis#R.

Genus CryptomicroecaSpecies listFamily plate   Christidis et al., 2012

Newly erected, following findings of recent phylogenetic study#R#R. Previously placed in Eopsaltria.

Genus MonachellaSpecies listFamily plate   Salvadori, 1874
Genus MicroecaSpecies listFamily plate   Gould, 1841
Subfamily Drymodinae
Genus DrymodesSpecies listFamily plate   Gould, 1841

In past, considered to belong in Turdidae#R.

Subfamily Eopsaltriinae
Genus PlesiodryasSpecies listFamily plate   Mathews, 1920

Previously included in Poecilodryas.

Genus PoecilodryasSpecies listFamily plate   Gould, 1865
Genus HeteromyiasSpecies listFamily plate   Sharpe, 1879

Often subsumed within Poecilodryas.

Genus GennaeodryasSpecies listFamily plate   Mathews, 1920

Previously included in Poecilodryas. In past, sometimes misspelt Genneadryas.

Genus EopsaltriaSpecies listFamily plate   Swainson, 1832
Genus QuoyornisSpecies listFamily plate   Mathews, 1912

Previously included in Eopsaltria, but genetic data#R suggest monotypic genus is appropriate.

Genus TregellasiaSpecies listFamily plate   Mathews, 1912
Genus MelanodryasSpecies listFamily plate   Gould, 1865

Formerly subsumed into Petroica, but differs in plumage details and body postures, as well as juvenile plumage, nest and eggs, and skull characters.

Genus PeneothelloSpecies listFamily plate   Mathews, 1920
Genus PeneoenantheSpecies listFamily plate   Mathews, 1920

Has been placed in Poecilodryas, or more recently in Eopsaltria or Peneothello, but placement in its own genus seems best option. Closest to Peneothello#R.

Family Hyliotidae (Hyliotas)Family species listFamily plate

In past, variously placed with Muscicapidae, Monarchidae or Platysteiridae, but differs in several respects from all of these. Molecular data#R indicate that it represents a very old oscine lineage with no known near relatives; perhaps closest to Stenostiridae, Paridae and Remizidae#R#R.

Genus HyliotaSpecies listFamily plate   Swainson, 1837
Family Stenostiridae (Fairy Flycatcher and allies)Family species listFamily plate

Members previously scattered variously across Rhipiduridae, Monarchidae and Muscicapidae and sometimes Sylviidae, but recent genetic studies#R#R#R unite them in a separate family, perhaps closest to Paridae and Remizidae#R#R.

Genus StenostiraSpecies listFamily plate   Cabanis & Bonaparte, 1850

Previously placed in Sylviidae on basis of plumage and behaviour (but nestling very different), or sometimes included in Monarchidae (but differs in voice, mouth colour, lack of eyering, shape of carpometacarpus); in HBW included in Muscicapidae.

Genus ChelidorhynxSpecies listFamily plate   Blyth, 1843

Previously placed in Rhipidura (see page 314), but genetic data#R#R indicate that it is sister to Stenostira.

Genus CulicicapaSpecies listFamily plate   Swinhoe, 1871

Previously placed in Muscicapidae, and some DNA studies suggested it belonged in Petroicidae, but later genetic studies#R#R ally it to members of present family.

Genus ElminiaSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1854

Previously placed in Monarchidae, with first three species below sometimes in Trochocercus; but is closest to Culicicapa, and inclusion in present family supported by genetic data#R.

Family Paridae (Tits and Chickadees)Family species listFamily plate
Genus CephalopyrusSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1854

On basis of molecular data, either sister to Paridae#R or (as followed here) basal within it#R. Previously placed in Regulidae or, more recently, Remizidae; behavioural and other information supports treatment in Remizidae or present family.

Genus SylviparusSpecies listFamily plate   E. Burton, 1836

Sometimes merged into Parus, but genetic data confirm both distinctiveness and close relationship to Melanochlora#R.

Genus MelanochloraSpecies listFamily plate   Lesson, 1839

Genetic data indicate close relationship to Sylviparus#R.

Genus PardaliparusSpecies listFamily plate   Sélys-Longchamps, 1884

Previously part of a much broader genus Parus (which see, below), whence moved to Periparus, but now separated in present genus based on recent genetic data#R#R; internal relationships require further research.

Genus PeriparusSpecies listFamily plate   Sélys-Longchamps, 1884

Previously part of a much broader genus Parus (which see, below).

Genus BaeolophusSpecies listFamily plate   Cabanis, 1851#R

Previously part of a much broader genus Parus (which see, below).

Genus LophophanesSpecies listFamily plate   Kaup, 1829

Previously part of a much broader genus Parus (which see, below).

Genus SittiparusSpecies listFamily plate   Sélys-Longchamps, 1884

Previously part of a much broader genus Parus (which see, below), from which all but S. semilarvatus were removed to Poecile; S. semilarvatus recently found#R to be sister to S. varius (with owstoni, olivaceus and castaneoventris), leading to their separation in present genus.

Genus PoecileSpecies listFamily plate   Kaup, 1829

Previously part of a much broader genus Parus (which see, below).

Genus CyanistesSpecies listFamily plate   Kaup, 1829

Previously part of a much broader genus Parus (which see, below).

Genus PseudopodocesSpecies listFamily plate   Zarudny & Loudon, 1902

Until recently placed in Corvidae, often in the ground-jay genus Podoces; but osteological, morphological and vocal characters indicate that it belongs in present family, and a comprehensive genetic review of the Paridae recovered Pseudopodoces as sister to the Parus major complex#R.

Genus ParusSpecies listFamily plate   Linnaeus, 1758

Until recently, greatly expanded to encompass all members of family other than monospecific Sylviparus and Melanochlora (with monospecific Cephalopyrus then in Remizidae and Pseudopodoces in Corvidae), thus including Pardaliparus, Periparus, Baeolophus, Lophophanes, Sittiparus, Poecile, Cyanistes, Machlolophus and Melaniparus#R. Last two listed were also retained within present genus until Pseudopodoces was found to be sister to Parus major complex, thus requiring their generic separation too#R.

Genus MachlolophusSpecies listFamily plate   Cabanis, 1851

Previously part of a much broader genus Parus (which see, above). M. nuchalis was previously considered part of the P. major complex, but a multi-locus genetic study indicates that its closest relatives are current congeners; closer genetic proximity of Pseudopodoces to P. major requires resurrection of Machlolophus for this clade of four species#R.

Genus MelaniparusSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1850

Previously part of a much broader genus Parus (which see, above). These Afrotropical species form a monophyletic group, separated from Parus by interposition of Pseudopodoces, and thus require a separate genus#R.

Family Remizidae (Penduline-tits)Family species listFamily plate
Genus RemizSpecies listFamily plate   Jarocki, 1819

Often treated as a single species, sometimes as three (by lumping R. coronatus and R. consobrinus)#R or two, with R. pendulinus also considered conspecific with R. macronyx. Treatment as four distinct species based mainly on structural differences, as well as plumage and habitat; further research required.

Genus AnthoscopusSpecies listFamily plate   Cabanis, 1851
Genus AuriparusSpecies listFamily plate   S. F. Baird, 1864

In past, at times variously placed with Paridae, with Coereba (previously Coerebidae, now Thraupidae, see page 858), or with Polioptilidae; but genetic data confirm its position in Remizidae#R, where it shares several features with other family members, in particular nest details, vocalizations, bill shape and incomplete post-juvenile moult.

Family Alaudidae (Larks)Family species listFamily plate

Recent molecular phylogeny of this family#R—the most comprehensive attempted to date—has recommended novel arrangements for several species and genera, including the resurrection of a number of abandoned genus-group names.

Genus AlaemonSpecies listFamily plate   Keyserling & J. H. Blasius, 1840
Genus ChersomanesSpecies listFamily plate   Cabanis, 1851
Genus AmmomanopsisSpecies listFamily plate   Bianchi, 1905#R#R

Traditionally included in Ammomanes, but genetics place it much closer to Certhilauda and Chersomanes#R.

Genus CerthilaudaSpecies listFamily plate   Swainson, 1827
Genus PinarocorysSpecies listFamily plate   Shelley, 1902

Often included in Mirafra, but structure, plumage (including sexual dimorphism) and migratory behaviour all differ; molecular data confirm closer relationship to Ramphocoris and Ammomanes#R.

Genus RamphocorisSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1850

Spelling often incorrectly emended to Rhamphocorys.

Genus AmmomanesSpecies listFamily plate   Cabanis, 1851
Genus EremopterixSpecies listFamily plate   Kaup, 1836
Genus CalendulaudaSpecies listFamily plate   Blyth, 1855
Genus HeteromirafraSpecies listFamily plate   C. H. B. Grant, 1913
Genus MirafraSpecies listFamily plate   Horsfield, 1821
Genus ChersophilusSpecies listFamily plate   Sharpe, 1890

Sister to Eremalauda#R.

Genus EremalaudaSpecies listFamily plate   W. L. Sclater, 1926
Genus AlaudalaSpecies listFamily plate   Horsfield & Moore, 1856

Recently split from Calandrella, based on genetic data#R. Emendation to Alaudula unjustified.

Genus MelanocoryphaSpecies listFamily plate   Boie, 1828
Genus CalandrellaSpecies listFamily plate   Kaup, 1829
Genus EremophilaSpecies listFamily plate   Boie, 1828
Genus LullulaSpecies listFamily plate   Kaup, 1829

Previously considered very closely related to Alauda, or even merged into it, but genetic data reveal that Spizocorys and Lullula are sisters#R.

Genus SpizocorysSpecies listFamily plate   Sundevall, 1872
Genus AlaudaSpecies listFamily plate   Linnaeus, 1758
Genus GaleridaSpecies listFamily plate   Boie, 1828
Family Panuridae (Bearded Reedling)Family species listFamily plate

Considerable genetic evidence indicates that this taxon is not, as previously thought, closely related to Paradoxornis (now in Sylviidae), but instead is probably sister to Alaudidae#R#R#R#R#R.

Genus PanurusSpecies listFamily plate   Koch, 1816
Family Nicatoridae (Nicators)Family species listFamily plate

Systematic position long debated; traditionally classified within a broad family Laniidae based on similarities in coloration and bill morphology, or placed with Malaconotidae (formerly part of Laniidae) or with Pycnonotidae on morphological grounds. Analyses of feather proteins and early studies of DNA-DNA hybridization both favoured placement in Pycnonotidae, but genus unique in several morphological and other features (including nest structure). Recent DNA studies place it in a separate family, probably close to Alaudidae and Panuridae#R#R#R#R.

Genus NicatorSpecies listFamily plate   Hartlaub & Finsch, 1870
Family Macrosphenidae (Crombecs and allies)Family species listFamily plate

Recently delineated family, comprising Macrosphenus, Sphenoeacus, Melocichla, Achaetops, Sylvietta and Cryptillas#R; in addition, Graueria tentatively included here, but its affinities are still uncertain, as no molecular data published.

Genus SylviettaSpecies listFamily plate   Lafresnaye, 1839

Previously placed in a broad Sylviidae (see page 498), or more recently in Acrocephalidae. Numerous forms described in “Sylviella”, an unjustified emendation of present genus name.

Genus CryptillasSpecies listFamily plate   Oberholser, 1899

Previously placed in Bradypterus, but differs from African members of that genus with respect to plumage, structure, behaviour and song, while genetic data also support its present treatment#R.

Genus AchaetopsSpecies listFamily plate   Roberts, 1922

In past, often placed in Chaetops (see page 372) on basis of similarities in osteology and habitat, but distinct in behaviour and voice; previously placed in Timaliidae, but molecular evidence places it close to Sphenoeacus within present family#R#R. Further research required.

Genus SphenoeacusSpecies listFamily plate   Strickland, 1841

Closely related to Melocichla and Achaetops, as now confirmed by genetic analyses#R#R.

Genus MelocichlaSpecies listFamily plate   Hartlaub, 1857

Sometimes merged with Sphenoeacus; closely related to that genus and Achaetops, as confirmed by genetic data#R.

Genus MacrosphenusSpecies listFamily plate   Cassin, 1859
Genus GraueriaSpecies listFamily plate   E. J. O. Hartert, 1908

Affinities uncertain; no molecular data published. Often considered close to Macrosphenus, but bill shorter and stronger, a feature that has caused some to place it in Timaliidae; barred underparts and build suggest possible close relationship with Calamonastes (Cisticolidae, see page 416). Further research required.

Family Cisticolidae (Cisticolas and allies)Family species listFamily plate
Subfamily Neomixinae
Genus NeomixisSpecies listFamily plate   Sharpe, 1881
Subfamily Eremomelinae
Genus EremomelaSpecies listFamily plate   Sundevall, 1850

Previously placed in a much-expanded Sylviidae, but transferred to Cisticolidae based on genetic evidence#R.

Genus DrymocichlaSpecies listFamily plate   Hartlaub, 1881

Shows structural similarities to Camaroptera and Calamonastes, but although these two belong to the same broad clade (Eremomelinae) within the family, present genus is more basal within this lineage#R.

Genus SchistolaisSpecies listFamily plate   Wolters, 1980

Previously included in Prinia, but differs in calls, behaviour, plumage and nest structure; genetic data reveal closer relationship to Drymocichla#R.

Genus UrolaisSpecies listFamily plate   Alexander, 1903

Sometimes placed in Prinia, but genetically rather distant from it#R.

Genus ArtisornisSpecies listFamily plate   Friedmann, 1928

Sometimes included in Orthotomus, but has ten (not twelve) rectrices; genetically much closer to Apalis and allies#R.

Genus OreolaisSpecies listFamily plate   Nguembock et al., 2008

Previously placed in Apalis, where it was considered closely related to A. thoracica, but it is genetically quite distinct#R#R.

Genus OreophilaisSpecies listFamily plate   Clancey, 1991

Previously included in Prinia, but genetic evidence suggests it is sister to Phragmacia#R.

Genus PhragmaciaSpecies listFamily plate   Brooke & Dean, 1990

Previously included in Prinia.

Genus ApalisSpecies listFamily plate   Swainson, 1833

To date, sampling insufficiently dense#R#R to provide a genetic perspective on many long-standing issues of specific and subspecific taxonomy. Many relationships postulated here remain to be tested by molecular data, and further examples of polyphyly may emerge once more extensive sampling has been possible#R#R.

Genus PhyllolaisSpecies listFamily plate   Hartlaub, 1881

Sometimes placed in Apalis; has been linked with Acrocephalidae, but genetic data situate it in Eremomelinae#R.

Genus SpiloptilaSpecies listFamily plate   Sundevall, 1872
Genus PoliolaisSpecies listFamily plate   Alexander, 1903

Affinities recently clarified by molecular study#R; previously placed variously in Camaroptera (but has only ten rectrices) or Artisornis.

Genus CalamonastesSpecies listFamily plate   Sharpe, 1883
Genus CamaropteraSpecies listFamily plate   Sundevall, 1850
Genus MicromacronusSpecies listFamily plate   Amadon, 1962

Recently shown to belong in present family rather than with Timaliidae, although precise position remains to be determined#R#R.

Subfamily Cisticolinae
Genus ScepomycterSpecies listFamily plate   C. H. B. Grant & Mackworth-Praed, 1941

Often placed in Bathmocercus, which it superficially resembles, but genetic evidence suggests that it is instead basal to Cisticola. Closely related to Euryptila#R.

Genus EuryptilaSpecies listFamily plate   Sharpe, 1883

Previously linked to Bradypterus (Locustellidae, see page 442); also speculated to be closely allied to Calamonastes, despite lack of a tailored nest and differences in nostril structure.

Genus IncanaSpecies listFamily plate   Lynes, 1930

In past, at times included in Cisticola due to structural similarities, in spite of remarkably long bill, reddish eyering, and behavioural similarities to Camaroptera and Prinia; genetic evidence places it in a separate subclade from Cisticola#R.

Genus MalcorusSpecies listFamily plate   A. Smith, 1829

Often included in Prinia, but genetic evidence indicates that its closest relatives include Hypergerus and Eminia#R.

Genus HypergerusSpecies listFamily plate   Reichenbach, 1850

Previously linked to Timaliidae, but genetic evidence places it within the present family, where it is sister to Eminia#R#R#R#R.

Genus EminiaSpecies listFamily plate   Hartlaub, 1881

Sister to Hypergerus, and sometimes merged into it.

Genus CisticolaSpecies listFamily plate   Kaup, 1829

Internal relationships poorly known; much genetic study needed. Part of a clade that also includes Scepomycter, Euryptila, Incana, Malcorus, Hypergerus, Eminia and Bathmocercus#R#R.

Genus BathmocercusSpecies listFamily plate   Reichenow, 1895
Subfamily Priniinae
Genus PriniaSpecies listFamily plate   Horsfield, 1821

Now includes several species previously placed in other genera#R; more extensive genetic studies still required.

Genus OrthotomusSpecies listFamily plate   Horsfield, 1821

Precise position within Cisticolidae recently clarified#R.

Family Acrocephalidae (Reed-warblers)Family species listFamily plate

Previously included in a broad Sylviidae; genetic data place this group as a family apart, perhaps closest to Pnoepygidae, with Locustellidae, Donacobiidae and Bernieridae as other near relatives#R#R#R.

Genus NesillasSpecies listFamily plate   Oberholser, 1899

Molecular data suggest basal position within Acrocephalidae#R#R.

Genus CalamonastidesSpecies listFamily plate   C. H. B. Grant & Mackworth-Praed, 1940

In past, same genus (including same two taxa, as a single species) was classified alongside “Calamocichla group” (see Acrocephalus, below); subsequently included in Chloropeta along with two species of Iduna (which see, below). Recent molecular work has confirmed Calamonastides as representing an early radiation within Acrocephalidae, meriting separate generic treatment#R.

Genus ArundinaxSpecies listFamily plate   Blyth, 1845

Previously placed in Acrocephalus, but genetic data support separation in monospecific genus, which is probably sister to Iduna#R or Calamonastides#R. Present name has priority over Phragmaticola#R.

Genus IdunaSpecies listFamily plate   Keyserling & J. H. Blasius, 1840

Comprises four species previously placed in Hippolais and two from Chloropeta, shown by genetic studies#R to be each other’s closest relatives; also close to Arundinax. Name Iduna (type species caligata) has priority over Chloropeta (type species natalensis).

Genus HippolaisSpecies listFamily plate   Conrad von Baldenstein, 1827
Genus AcrocephalusSpecies listFamily plate   J. A. Naumann & J. F. Naumann, 1811

Based on genetic studies#R#R#R#R, comprises at least four subgenera, containing species as listed below: Titiza (name has priority over Calamodus), streaked forms, plus unstreaked A. bistrigiceps (species 18–22); Notiocichla, small unstreaked forms (species 23–29); Calamocichla, African/Malagasy forms (species 30–36); and Acrocephalus, large forms, including all Australian and Polynesian species, plus three from Eurasia (species 37–54). Further genetic work required in Wallacea and Australasia; sequence of taxa in Polynesia has been comprehensively reorganized following molecular analysis.

Family Pnoepygidae (Cupwings)Family species listFamily plate

Traditionally considered part of an expanded Timaliidae, but a recent molecular study recovered the genus Pnoepyga outwith the latter and well within the Sylvioidea radiation, although its precise relatives remain obscure#R.

Genus PnoepygaSpecies listFamily plate   Hodgson, 1844
Family Locustellidae (Grasshopper-warblers and Grassbirds)Family species listFamily plate

Recently erected family#R#R; constituents previously placed in a broad family Sylviidae, typically in subfamilies Megalurinae and Acrocephalinae, as well as a few species previously listed in a broad version of Timaliidae. Internal structure, including addition and removal of various taxa, has steadily been clarified in recent years by series of genetic studies#R#R#R#R; several elements yet to be tested genetically, so some further changes expected. Previously listed as Megaluridae, but (as currently constituted) name Locustellidae has priority#R.

Genus LocustellaSpecies listFamily plate   Kaup, 1829

Asian taxa removed from Bradypterus and included here, based on evidence from molecular studies#R.

Genus MegalurusSpecies listFamily plate   Horsfield, 1821

Previously considered to comprise up to eight species; all but one since transferred to Cincloramphus, Poodytes or, in one case, Locustella#R.

Genus SchoenicolaSpecies listFamily plate   Blyth, 1844
Genus BradypterusSpecies listFamily plate   Swainson, 1837

Asian species formerly placed in Bradypterus now transferred to Locustella, to avoid paraphyly, so present grouping is now exclusively Afrotropical#R#R.

Genus CincloramphusSpecies listFamily plate   Gould, 1838

Currently includes Australasian species formerly placed in Megalurus.

Genus PoodytesSpecies listFamily plate   Cabanis, 1851

Includes taxa previously treated in Megalurus and Eremiornis#R; arrangement provisional and requires confirmation via more complete taxon sampling.

Genus MegalurulusSpecies listFamily plate   J. P. Verreaux, 1869

Placement in present family to some extent tentative, as is case with Amphilais, Buettikoferella, Chaetornis, Elaphrornis, Malia and Robsonius; many of these taxa remain to be screened genetically.

Genus BuettikoferellaSpecies listFamily plate   Stresemann, 1928
Genus AmphilaisSpecies listFamily plate   S. A. Parker, 1984
Genus ElaphrornisSpecies listFamily plate   Legge, 1879
Genus ChaetornisSpecies listFamily plate   G. R. Gray, 1848
Genus MaliaSpecies listFamily plate   Schlegel, 1880
Genus RobsoniusSpecies listFamily plate   Collar, 2006

All taxa previously placed in Napothera, within a broader Timaliidae, but preliminary genetic analysis places these species in present family#R.

Family Donacobiidae (Donacobius)Family species listFamily plate

Sole species was frequently thought to belong in family Mimidae, based on large size, morphology (long tail, short rounded wings, heavy feet and legs), open cup-nest, and rambunctious and extroverted behaviour; in contrast, its well-developed social structure (duetting vocalizations and mutual display) is very reminiscent of some troglodytids, notably in genus Campylorhynchus, in addition to which anatomical studies argued in favour of placement in Troglodytidae; DNA studies, however, have demonstrated that it is an aberrant, Neotropical isolate “sylvioid”, that requires its own family#R#R#R#R.

Genus DonacobiusSpecies listFamily plate   Swainson, 1831#R#R
Family Bernieridae (Tetrakas)Family species listFamily plate

Recently delineated family of exclusively Malagasy provenance, comprising taxa traditionally classified as Timaliidae, Sylviidae or Pycnonotidae#R#R#R#R; constituent species exhibit considerable variety of bill shapes, wing and tail proportions, and tarsus lengths, linked to their favoured habitats and diets. Prior to formal introduction of family-group name with current spelling#R, alternative spelling “Bernieriidae” was also used informally.

Genus OxylabesSpecies listFamily plate   Sharpe, 1870
Genus BernieriaSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1854

Often considered congeneric with Xanthomixis, but genetic data refute this.

Genus HartertulaSpecies listFamily plate   Stresemann, 1925
Genus ThamnornisSpecies listFamily plate   A. Milne-Edwards & A. Grandidier, 1882
Genus XanthomixisSpecies listFamily plate   Sharpe, 1881

Previously merged into Bernieria, but DNA sequence data indicate that the species thus involved do not form a monophyletic group.

Genus CrossleyiaSpecies listFamily plate   Hartlaub, 1877
Genus CryptosylvicolaSpecies listFamily plate   Goodman et al., 1996
Genus RandiaSpecies listFamily plate   Delacour & Berlioz, 1931

Only recently confirmed to belong in this family#R, as previously suspected.

Family Hirundinidae (Swallows and Martins)Family species listFamily plate
Subfamily Pseudochelidoninae
Genus PseudochelidonSpecies listFamily plate   Hartlaub, 1861

Often considered to include Eurochelidon; these two are basal to all other genera in the family, on evidence of molecular study#R.

Genus EurochelidonSpecies listFamily plate   Brooke, 1972

Often merged into Pseudochelidon (see above), but differs in bill size and shape (broader and flatter), eye size and colour, and foot size, and also in toe proportions.

Subfamily Hirundininae
Genus CheramoecaSpecies listFamily plate   Cabanis, 1851#R
Genus PseudhirundoSpecies listFamily plate   Roberts, 1922
Genus PsalidoprocneSpecies listFamily plate   Cabanis, 1851#R
Genus DelichonSpecies listFamily plate   F. Moore, 1854
Genus PetrochelidonSpecies listFamily plate   Cabanis, 1851#R

In past, often merged into Hirundo, but DNA studies support recognition of separate genera.

Genus CecropisSpecies listFamily plate   Boie, 1826

Has often been merged into Hirundo, but DNA studies support use of separate genera.

Genus HirundoSpecies listFamily plate   Linnaeus, 1758

Has often been considered to include any or all of Petrochelidon, Cecropis and Ptyonoprogne.

Genus PtyonoprogneSpecies listFamily plate   Reichenbach, 1850

Often merged into Hirundo, but DNA studies indicate that the two are sisters.

Genus NeophedinaSpecies listFamily plate   Roberts, 1922

Previously subsumed within Riparia, but differs in its large size, bill and nostril shapes, loral bristles, squarer tail and more solitary lifestyle. Phylogenetic study#R indicates that closest relatives are the also monospecific Phedina and Phedinopsis; some have suggested that all three be considered congeneric (in Phedina)#R.

Genus PhedinaSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1855#R

See Neophedina (above) and Phedinopsis (below).

Genus PhedinopsisSpecies listFamily plate   Wolters, 1971

Previously considered sister to Phedina, and indeed sometimes placed in that genus; vocalizations, however, apparently more similar to those of Neophedina than to those of Phedina#R; moreover, DNA data#R indicate deep genetic divergence separating all three, whence present treatment in three monospecific genera. In past, present species occasionally treated in Riparia.

Genus RipariaSpecies listFamily plate   T. Forster, 1817
Genus TachycinetaSpecies listFamily plate   Cabanis, 1851#R
Genus ProgneSpecies listFamily plate   Boie, 1826
Genus StelgidopteryxSpecies listFamily plate   S. F. Baird, 1858
Genus PygochelidonSpecies listFamily plate   S. F. Baird, 1865
Genus AlopochelidonSpecies listFamily plate   Ridgway, 1903

Sometimes merged with Stelgidopteryx, but lacks serrated wing edge; genetic data#R strongly support their treatment as separate genera.

Genus AtticoraSpecies listFamily plate   Gould#R, 1842

Recent phylogeny of family based on genetic data#R involves considerable alteration of hitherto accepted generic limits of “Neotropical core martins” (Pygochelidon to Orochelidon in current list). Among these changes is transfer to present genus of A. pileata, the type species of previously speciose genus Notiochelidon; as Atticora has priority, name Notiochelidon now passes into its synonymy.

Genus OrochelidonSpecies listFamily plate   Ridgway, 1903

Resurrected in order to accommodate new genetic findings#R.

Family Pycnonotidae (Bulbuls)Family species listFamily plate
Genus StelgidillasSpecies listFamily plate   Oberholser, 1899

Based on molecular data#R, forms a group with Calyptocichla and Andropadus (sensu stricto) that is basal to African greenbuls. Formerly submerged within Andropadus, and earlier in Pycnonotus.

Genus CalyptocichlaSpecies listFamily plate   Oberholser, 1905

Distinctive form, apparently closest to Stelgidillas#R (see above).

Genus AndropadusSpecies listFamily plate   Swainson, 1832#R

Previously considered to include all species currently placed in Stelgidillas, Arizelocichla and Eurillas, but separated on basis of DNA#R. Formerly submerged within Pycnonotus.

Genus NeolestesSpecies listFamily plate   Cabanis, 1875

Skeletal and molecular studies confirm species belongs within present family, although, contrary to earlier suggestions, not as a basal branch#R.

Genus BledaSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1857
Genus AtimastillasSpecies listFamily plate   Oberholser, 1905

Previously included in Chlorocichla, but DNA data place it closest to Ixonotus and Thescelocichla#R.

Genus IxonotusSpecies listFamily plate   J. P. Verreaux & J. B. É. Verreaux, 1851
Genus ThescelocichlaSpecies listFamily plate   Oberholser, 1905
Genus BaeopogonSpecies listFamily plate   Heine, 1860

Sister to Chlorocichla, based on DNA findings#R.

Genus ChlorocichlaSpecies listFamily plate   Sharpe, 1882

Sister to Baeopogon, based on DNA findings#R.

Genus ArizelocichlaSpecies listFamily plate   Oberholser, 1905

Apparently sister to a group formed by Atimastillas, Ixonotus, Thescelocichla, Baeopogon and Chlorocichla#R; previously included in Andropadus, which itself was earlier merged with Pycnonotus.

Genus EurillasSpecies listFamily plate   Oberholser, 1899

Apparently sister to the group formed by Arizelocichla (which see, above) and its allies#R; previously included in Andropadus, which itself was earlier merged with Pycnonotus.

Genus CrinigerSpecies listFamily plate   Temminck, 1820

Previously considered close to Alophoixus, and the two were often merged; but recent molecular evidence#R indicates relationship remote, despite close similarity in appearance.

Genus PhyllastrephusSpecies listFamily plate   Swainson, 1831
Genus PyrrhurusSpecies listFamily plate   Cassin, 1859

Often subsumed within Phyllastrephus; separated primarily on bill shape.

Genus TricholestesSpecies listFamily plate   Salvadori, 1874

Often placed in an expanded Hypsipetes, but unique features favour separation in monospecific genus.

Genus SetornisSpecies listFamily plate   Lesson, 1839
Genus AlophoixusSpecies listFamily plate   Oates, 1889

Often merged into African Criniger, but molecular study#R indicates that African and Asian members of this family are only distantly related. Phylogeographical study#R reveals apparent presence of a ring species complex in Indomalayan region, and this is supported by analytical study#R.

Genus IoleSpecies listFamily plate   Blyth, 1844

Often included in Hypsipetes.

Genus HemixosSpecies listFamily plate   Blyth, 1845

Sometimes merged into Hypsipetes.

Genus IxosSpecies listFamily plate   Temminck, 1825

Often included in Hypsipetes.

Genus HypsipetesSpecies listFamily plate   Vigors, 1831

In past, has at various times incorporated some or all of Tricholestes, Iole, Hemixos, Ixos and Cerasophila.

Genus SpizixosSpecies listFamily plate   Blyth, 1845
Genus PycnonotusSpecies listFamily plate   Boie, 1826

As currently constituted probably polyphyletic; in-depth analysis of morphology, voice, behaviour and genetics required to redefine its limits. In past, included numerous other genera.

Genus EuptilotusSpecies listFamily plate   Reichenbach, 1850

Previously subsumed into Pycnonotus. Sometimes placed in Microtarsus.

Genus MicrotarsusSpecies listFamily plate   Eyton, 1839

Previously subsumed into Pycnonotus.

Genus BrachypodiusSpecies listFamily plate   Blyth, 1845

Previously subsumed into Pycnonotus. Sometimes included in Microtarsus.

Genus PoliolophusSpecies listFamily plate   Sharpe, 1877

Previously subsumed into Pycnonotus. Sometimes placed in Microtarsus.

Genus AcritillasSpecies listFamily plate   Oberholser, 1905

Sometimes included in Hypsipetes or in Iole, but unique morphology and nest structure support treatment as monotypic genus.

Genus ThapsinillasSpecies listFamily plate   Oberholser, 1905

Sometimes merged into Alophoixus.

Genus CerasophilaSpecies listFamily plate   Bingham, 1900

Often included in an expanded Hypsipetes.

Family Phylloscopidae (Leaf-warblers)Family species listFamily plate

Formerly included in a broad Sylviidae. Recent review#R indicates that previous internal arrangement, with all taxa of present family split between Seicercus and Phylloscopus, was paraphyletic. As a result some authors have split Phylloscopus into several smaller genera, with some movement of taxa from Phylloscopus to Seicercus, but accuracy of this debatable on present knowledge. One of these versions#R involves groups containing species as listed below: Rhadina (species 1–3); Abrornis (species 4–13); Phylloscopus (species 14–28); and Seicercus (species 29–78). Another version#R divides family into nine genera. More cautious alternative involves merging Seicercus into Phylloscopus; adopted herein, pending results of a comprehensive study currently in progress#R.

Genus PhylloscopusSpecies listFamily plate   Boie, 1826
Family Scotocercidae (Bush-warblers)Family species listFamily plate

Previously scattered about within a broad version of Sylviidae. Recent genetic studies show these taxa to form a well-defined group that is probably closest to Aegithalidae and Phylloscopidae#R#R#R#R. The three subfamilies are sometimes recognized as three separate families.

Subfamily Erythrocercinae
Genus ErythrocercusSpecies listFamily plate   Hartlaub, 1857

Previously placed in Monarchidae, but shown not to be closely related and to belong instead within present assemblage#R#R.

Subfamily Scotocercinae
Genus ScotocercaSpecies listFamily plate   Sundevall, 1872

Previously placed in Cisticolidae, where was sometimes even merged into Prinia.

Subfamily Cettiinae
Genus TesiaSpecies listFamily plate   Hodgson, 1837
Genus CettiaSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1834

Previously included all species now placed in Horornis.

Genus HemitesiaSpecies listFamily plate   Chapin, 1948

Genetic data#R suggest that this genus should perhaps be submerged into Urosphena.

Genus UrosphenaSpecies listFamily plate   Swinhoe, 1877
Genus AbroscopusSpecies listFamily plate   E. C. S. Baker, 1930

Previously grouped alongside Seicercus (now merged into Phylloscopus, see page 482).

Genus PhyllergatesSpecies listFamily plate   Sharpe, 1883

Previously placed in Orthotomus (see page 428), but recent studies clearly show that it belongs here#R.

Genus TickelliaSpecies listFamily plate   Blyth, 1861

Often absorbed in Abroscopus, but is highly distinctive by virtue of relatively large, flattened bill and exceptionally long rictal bristles.

Genus HorornisSpecies listFamily plate   Hodgson, 1845

Previously included in Cettia, but separated on basis of genetic studies#R.

Genus HyliaSpecies listFamily plate   Cassin, 1859

Affinities uncertain; in past, often included in Nectariniidae, mainly on account of certain anatomical features, and sometimes in Paridae or Ploceidae. Recent genetic study#R places present genus and Pholidornis together in a separate family, Hyliidae; further study needed.

Genus PholidornisSpecies listFamily plate   Hartlaub, 1857

See Hylia (above). In past, variously placed with Nectariniidae, Estrildidae, Sylviidae, Paridae, Remizidae or Meliphagidae.

Family Aegithalidae (Long-tailed Tits)Family species listFamily plate
Genus LeptopoecileSpecies listFamily plate   Severtsov, 1873
Genus PsaltriparusSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1850
Genus AegithalosSpecies listFamily plate   Hermann, 1804
Genus PsaltriaSpecies listFamily plate   Temminck, 1836

Recent genetic study#R strongly supports inclusion in present family, and also nests it within Aegithalos, to which behaviour and vocalizations very similar.

Family Sylviidae (Old World Warblers and Parrotbills)Family species listFamily plate

Previously considered to incorporate numerous other taxa, including some or all current members of Acrocephalidae, Locustellidae, Phylloscopidae, Scotocercidae, Macrosphenidae, Bernieridae and sometimes Cisticolidae. Earlier, this assemblage was grouped with Timaliidae (sensu lato) and Turdidae in an outsize Muscicapidae.

Genus SylviaSpecies listFamily plate   Scopoli, 1769

Includes Horizorhinus, Pseudoalcippe and Lioptilus (all previously placed in Timaliidae); sometimes further subdivided, with recognition of e.g. Curruca. Some recent studies support division into three distinct clades#R; within this framework retesting and revised analysis have led to new sequence for species 19–30 below#R. In view of uncertainties, herein a broad genus seems more appropriate meantime, pending more complete results.

Genus ParophasmaSpecies listFamily plate   Reichenow, 1905

Previously placed in Timaliidae. Genetic study#R shows it to be sister to Sylvia, but other possible close relatives not sampled; further analyses, with wider sampling, may well indicate that it should be subsumed into Sylvia, which it closely resembles vocally and in size and shape.

Genus MyzornisSpecies listFamily plate   Blyth, 1843

Previously placed in Timaliidae, but genetic data#R situate it in present family.

Genus MoupiniaSpecies listFamily plate   David & Oustalet, 1877

Previously included in Timaliidae; sometimes placed in Chrysomma (below), but genetic data#R suggest it requires its own separate genus.

Genus LioparusSpecies listFamily plate   Oates, 1889

Previously included in Timaliidae, where commonly merged with Alcippe; genetic data#R place it in present family, probably closest to Moupinia and Chrysomma.

Genus ChrysommaSpecies listFamily plate   Blyth, 1843

Previously placed in Timaliidae but genetic data confirm its position in present assemblage#R.

Genus RhopophilusSpecies listFamily plate   Giglioli & Salvadori, 1870

Previously treated in Timaliidae; in past, placed near Cisticola (see page 418) and allies, but subsequently found to be close to Sylvia#R.

Genus FulvettaSpecies listFamily plate   David & Oustalet, 1877

Previously placed in Timaliidae, where commonly merged into Alcippe.

Genus ChamaeaSpecies listFamily plate   Gambel, 1847

Previously placed in Timaliidae, but genetic data#R#R#R indicate that it belongs in present family.

Genus ParadoxornisSpecies listFamily plate   Gould, 1836

Previously considered to include Psittiparus, Cholornis, Neosuthora, Suthora, Chleuasicus and Sinosuthora (all sometimes still lumped#R), and, together with Conostoma and Panurus (see page 406), was treated in a separate family, Paradoxornithidae; split into present genera was based mainly on morphology and voice#R.

Genus PsittiparusSpecies listFamily plate   Hellmayr, 1903

Previously subsumed into Paradoxornis (see above).

Genus ConostomaSpecies listFamily plate   Hodgson, 1841

See Paradoxornis (above). Original description included two different spellings (Conostoma, Conostama), as well as three of species name (aemodius, oemodius, omodius); both elements determined by ICZN Principle of First Reviser#R. Present genus name was claimed to be preoccupied by name of an insect (Diptera) genus, with replacement name Enendrozdovoma proposed; but the insect name appears to have been an error for Conosoma, and spelling Conostoma Rudolphi, 1801, is not in use#R.

Genus CholornisSpecies listFamily plate   J. P. Verreaux, 1871#R

See Paradoxornis (above). Older name Heteromorpha is preoccupied by an insect (Lepidoptera) name#R#R.

Genus NeosuthoraSpecies listFamily plate   Hellmayr, 1911

See Paradoxornis (above).

Genus SuthoraSpecies listFamily plate   Hodgson, 1837

See Paradoxornis (above).

Genus ChleuasicusSpecies listFamily plate   Blyth, 1845

See Paradoxornis (page 506). Sometimes merged into Suthora.

Genus SinosuthoraSpecies listFamily plate   Penhallurick & Robson, 2009

See Paradoxornis (page 506). Sometimes included in Suthora.

Family Zosteropidae (White-eyes)Family species listFamily plate

Genetic studies#R#R#R#R#R have led to considerable upheaval, involving internal rearrangement (including merging of Speirops and Woodfordia into Zosterops, and of Lophozosterops and Oculocincta into Heleia); addition of Yuhina, Zosterornis, Sterrhoptilus and Dasycrotapha from Timaliidae; and removal of previously included Madanga (to Motacillidae) and Hypocryptadius (to Passeridae). However, DNA of several relevant taxa remains unscreened so further revision is likely, for example of relationship between present family and now much-reduced Timaliidae#R#R.

Genus YuhinaSpecies listFamily plate   Hodgson, 1836

Previously placed in Timaliidae. As currently constituted, genus is polyphyletic, comprising at least three groups all of which might be recognized at generic level and at least one of which is unnamed, with Y. diademata sister to all Zosteropidae, and one of the Yuhina clades sister to the remainder of Zosteropidae#R#R#R.

Genus ZosterornisSpecies listFamily plate   Ogilvie-Grant, 1894

Previously placed in Timaliidae, where was sometimes merged into Stachyris; moved to present family based on dense molecular sampling#R#R#R. See comment under Z. whiteheadi.

Genus HeleiaSpecies listFamily plate   Hartlaub, 1865

Incorporates Lophozosterops and Oculocincta, as well as one species previously in Zosterops.

Genus CleptornisSpecies listFamily plate   Oustalet, 1889

In past, placed in Meliphagidae#R; DNA analyses indicate that present genus and also Apalopteron belong in present family#R#R.

Genus ApalopteronSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1854

In past, variously placed in Pycnonotidae, Timaliidae, Sylviidae and until recently Meliphagidae. DNA-DNA hybridization and field studies indicate placement in present family, close to Cleptornis (see above).

Genus RukiaSpecies listFamily plate   Momiyama, 1922
Genus MegazosteropsSpecies listFamily plate   Stresemann, 1930

Rather atypical member of the family. Has sometimes been merged into Rukia.

Genus ChlorocharisSpecies listFamily plate   Sharpe, 1888

Could perhaps be subsumed within Zosterops, but molecular data are contradictory#R#R.

Genus SterrhoptilusSpecies listFamily plate   Oberholser, 1918

Previously placed in Timaliidae, where sometimes treated within Stachyris; reclassified as a result of DNA studies#R#R.

Genus DasycrotaphaSpecies listFamily plate   Tweeddale, 1878

Traditionally placed in Timaliidae, where variously treated in Stachyris or more recently Sterrhoptilus, but molecular evidence situates it in present family#R#R; morphological differences from Sterrhoptilus support separation of present genus, but denser molecular screening needed to confirm or refute this#R.

Genus ZosteropsSpecies listFamily plate   Vigors & Horsfield, 1827

Internal structure much clarified by recent genetic studies#R#R, which also show that Speirops and Woodfordia do not represent monophyletic assemblages and are best subsumed within present genus; one species previously included herein (wallacei) is better transferred to Heleia.

Genus TephrozosteropsSpecies listFamily plate   Stresemann, 1931

May be closely related to Zosterops (perhaps closest to Z. cinereus), differing only in colour (complete absence of green and yellow pigments) and size (somewhat larger).

Family Timaliidae (Scimitar-babblers and allies)Family species listFamily plate

Previously considered part of an outsize Muscicapidae, where was treated as a very varied assemblage including most members of current Pellorneidae, Leiotrichidae and Pnoepygidae, as well as some current members of numerous other families (e.g. Sylviidae, Zosteropidae, Vireonidae, Vangidae, Macrosphenidae, Cisticolidae, Locustellidae, Bernieridae, etc.). Recent genetic work has clarified true relations of many of these taxa#R#R#R; thus, Macronus, Pomatorhinus and Stachyris, as traditionally circumscribed, were all polyphyletic, so several rearrangements have become necessary. Nevertheless, many of the species currently retained (based on traditional usage) remain to be tested genetically, so composition and internal systematics of this family are still liable to refinement.

Genus SpelaeornisSpecies listFamily plate   David & Oustalet, 1877
Genus PomatorhinusSpecies listFamily plate   Horsfield, 1821

Includes Xiphirhynchus, based on genetic evidence; in contrast, several species have been separated into Erythrogenys#R#R. Recent DNA study suggests three separate clades, and that many additional species might be recognized under a phylogenetic species concept#R.

Genus ErythrogenysSpecies listFamily plate   E. C. S. Baker, 1930

Previously included in Pomatorhinus (see above). Recently introduced name Megapomatorhinus is a synonym of Erythrogenys, although latter name was coined accidentally#R.

Genus StachyrisSpecies listFamily plate   Hodgson, 1844

Includes distinctive species previously placed in Sphenocichla, based on genetic re-evaluation#R.

Genus DumetiaSpecies listFamily plate   Blyth, 1852
Genus RhopocichlaSpecies listFamily plate   Oates, 1889
Genus TimaliaSpecies listFamily plate   Horsfield, 1821
Genus MixornisSpecies listFamily plate   Blyth, 1842

Reinstated to resolve paraphyly within an expanded Macronus#R.

Genus MacronusSpecies listFamily plate   Jardine & Selby, 1835

Original description included two different spellings of name (Macronus, Macronous); current name determined by First Reviser#R.

Genus CyanodermaSpecies listFamily plate   Salvadori, 1874

Formerly merged into Stachyris; some constituents latterly separated into Stachyridopsis, as in HBW, but recent molecular study#R moves several other species from Stachyris into same grouping, including type species (C. erythropterum) of Cyanoderma, which, being the older name, has precedence.

Family Pellorneidae (Ground Babblers)Family species listFamily plate

Newly accepted family, based on results of numerous molecular studies#R#R#R#R, and essentially comprising taxa previously buried in a broad Timaliidae (see above), with addition of Graminicola and Laticilla from Sylviidae and Cisticolidae, respectively#R.

Genus MalacopteronSpecies listFamily plate   Eyton, 1839
Genus GampsorhynchusSpecies listFamily plate   Blyth, 1844
Genus SchoeniparusSpecies listFamily plate   A. O. Hume, 1874

Traditionally merged into Alcippe (now in Leiotrichidae), while some species have been included in Pseudominla; however, molecular data require resurrection of present genus, and place type species of Pseudominla herein#R#R.

Genus LaticillaSpecies listFamily plate   Blyth, 1845

Previously included in Prinia (Cisticolidae), but vocally distinct and recently shown to be genetically far removed from that family; however, closest relatives of Laticilla are still unknown#R.

Genus IlladopsisSpecies listFamily plate   Heine, 1860
Genus PellorneumSpecies listFamily plate   Swainson, 1832
Genus TrichastomaSpecies listFamily plate   Blyth, 1842
Genus LeonardinaSpecies listFamily plate   Mearns, 1905

Placement uncertain. Often merged with Trichastoma or Malacocincla, but differs in its longer tarsus, shorter toes, rounded (rather than oval) nostril, thinner bill, proportionately longer tail, and very different song. Recent DNA study recovered Leonardina as being closely related to two “Rhinomyias” flycatchers (Muscicapidae) from Borneo#R, but this extraordinary finding demands confirmation#R. Original genus name Leonardia, but that name was preoccupied.

Genus KenopiaSpecies listFamily plate   G. R. Gray, 1869
Genus MalacocinclaSpecies listFamily plate   Blyth, 1845
Genus TurdinusSpecies listFamily plate   Blyth, 1844

Commonly merged into Napothera in past, but split on basis of molecular data; same study recovered type species of Malacocincla (M. abbotti) within Turdinus clade#R.

Genus PtilocichlaSpecies listFamily plate   Sharpe, 1877
Genus NapotheraSpecies listFamily plate   G. R. Gray, 1842

Previously#R included all members of Turdinus (above), as well as Robsonius (now Locustellidae, see page 446); removed on molecular evidence#R#R.

Genus RimatorSpecies listFamily plate   Blyth, 1847

Two species (R. naungmungensis and R. danjoui) sometimes separated in Jabouilleia; alternatively, all five species might be subsumed within Napothera.

Genus GraminicolaSpecies listFamily plate   Jerdon, 1863

Previously placed within a much-expanded Sylviidae, but transferred to present family based on genetic data, which found that Graminicola is sister to Malacocincla abbotti#R.

Family Leiotrichidae (Laughingthrushes and allies)Family species listFamily plate

Recently split from a broader Timaliidae. To date, traditionally recognized genera Cutia, Kupeornis, Phyllanthus, Turdoides, Garrulax, Babax (now in Garrulax), Heterophasia, Leiothrix, Minla, Liocichla and Actinodura have been recovered as members of a clade separate from those now placed in Timaliidae or Pellorneidae; however, Garrulax, Actinodura, Minla, Heterophasia and Turdoides, as typically circumscribed, have also been discovered to be polyphyletic. As a result, genetic data available to date#R#R#R#R#R (many species have not been screened) can be interpreted in various ways, permitting for a smaller number of larger genera, or many more genera characterized by fewer species, so listing presented here is provisional and dependent on additional molecular data for most of the as yet untested taxa. Family name has been spelt in variety of different ways; above is the original spelling, which is correctly formed and so must be used#R.

Genus AlcippeSpecies listFamily plate   Blyth, 1844
Genus GrammatoptilaSpecies listFamily plate   Reichenbach, 1850
Genus CutiaSpecies listFamily plate   Hodgson, 1837
Genus ArgyaSpecies listFamily plate   Lesson, 1831

Tentatively separated from Turdoides#R; genetic screening of at least some component taxa required.

Genus AcanthoptilaSpecies listFamily plate   Blyth, 1855

Sometimes included in a broader Turdoides, but here returned to monospecific genus owing to spiny shafts to its breast feathers and in consideration of its distinctive voice.

Genus ChatarrhaeaSpecies listFamily plate   Blyth, 1855

Resurrected for two species based on fact that C. gularis is paraphyletic with respect to other species previously in Turdoides; C. longirostris is unscreened#R.

Genus KupeornisSpecies listFamily plate   Serle, 1949

Close to Phyllanthus, differing in smaller and weaker bill with relatively broader base (less laterally compressed), more slit-like nostrils and more slender feet, but both genera could be subsumed within Turdoides based on molecular data#R.

Genus PhyllanthusSpecies listFamily plate   Lesson, 1844

See Kupeornis (above).

Genus TurdoidesSpecies listFamily plate   Cretzschmar, 1826
Genus GarrulaxSpecies listFamily plate   Lesson, 1831

Genera Leucodioptron, Stactocichla, Ianthocincla, Dryonastes, Rhinocichla, Melanocichla and Babax all provisionally sunk within a re-expanded Garrulax, but denser taxon sampling for DNA might necessitate restoration of at least some of these, given morphological and sometimes vocal or other differences shown by representative taxa#R.

Genus TrochalopteronSpecies listFamily plate   Blyth, 1843

Traditionally subsumed into Garrulax; in turn, genus Strophocincla (recognized in HBW) is provisionally included in this grouping.

Genus HeterophasiaSpecies listFamily plate   Blyth, 1842

Includes previously recognized genus Malacias.

Genus LeiothrixSpecies listFamily plate   Swainson, 1832

Sometimes subdivided, with recognition of Mesia for L. argentauris (with laurinae).

Genus LeioptilaSpecies listFamily plate   Blyth, 1847

Often included in Heterophasia, and sometimes in Minla, but differs markedly in structure, behaviour and vocalizations.

Genus MinlaSpecies listFamily plate   Hodgson, 1837
Genus LiocichlaSpecies listFamily plate   Swinhoe, 1877
Genus SibiaSpecies listFamily plate   Hodgson, 1836

Formerly treated within Actinodura, but split on basis of molecular data#R#R; name Ixos recommended for this grouping is a junior subjective synonym of Sibia#R.

Genus SivaSpecies listFamily plate   Hodgson, 1837

Often merged into Minla (which has priority by one month), but markedly different vocally and there is no good evidence for a close relationship; afforded monospecific genus following genetic study#R.

Genus ChrysominlaSpecies listFamily plate   Wolters, 1980

Commonly merged into Minla, but separated in monospecific genus following recent DNA work#R.

Genus ActinoduraSpecies listFamily plate   Gould, 1836

See Sibia (above).

Genus LaniellusSpecies listFamily plate   Swainson, 1832

Formerly listed under Crocias, but Laniellus has priority#R; neither species has been tested genetically, so placement in Leiotrichidae provisional.

Family Certhiidae (Treecreepers)Family species listFamily plate
Genus CerthiaSpecies listFamily plate   Linnaeus, 1758
Family Sittidae (Nuthatches)Family species listFamily plate
Subfamily Sittinae
Genus SittaSpecies listFamily plate   Linnaeus, 1758

Order of species is primarily based on a recent, well-resolved and largely comprehensive molecular phylogeny#R.

Subfamily Tichodrominae
Genus TichodromaSpecies listFamily plate   Illiger, 1811

Usually treated in either a separate family (as in HBW) or in a subfamily of Sittidae (as here); genetic analysis places it as sister to Sitta, but further corroboration required#R.

Subfamily Salpornithinae
Genus SalpornisSpecies listFamily plate   G. R. Gray, 1847

Has been treated as separate family, Salpornithidae, mainly due to lack of stiffened tail feathers; alternatively, as in HBW, considered a subfamily of Certhiidae (above), and this may yet be better option, given finding that Salpornis and Certhia are sister taxa, albeit with low support#R. Recent molecular phylogeny places it provisionally closer to Sitta than to Certhia#R. Earlier research using biometrics, song structure and cytochrome b sequences supported treatment as a separate family with closest, but still loose, relationship to Tichodromidae.

Family Polioptilidae (Gnatcatchers)Family species listFamily plate

Closely related to Troglodytidae, based on several independent genetic datasets#R#R#R#R.

Genus MicrobatesSpecies listFamily plate   P. L. Sclater & Salvin, 1873
Genus RamphocaenusSpecies listFamily plate   Vieillot, 1818#R
Genus PolioptilaSpecies listFamily plate   P. L. Sclater, 1855
Family Troglodytidae (Wrens)Family species listFamily plate

Genetic data indicate a close relationship to Polioptilidae, followed by Certhiidae and Sittidae#R#R#R, and support monophyly of present family, once Donacobius is removed; traditional linear sequence of species and genera, with Campylorhynchus listed first, now rearranged to reflect discovered phylogenetic relationships#R#R#R#R#R.

Genus SalpinctesSpecies listFamily plate   Cabanis, 1847
Genus MicrocerculusSpecies listFamily plate   P. L. Sclater, 1862
Genus CatherpesSpecies listFamily plate   S. F. Baird, 1858
Genus HylorchilusSpecies listFamily plate   Nelson, 1897
Genus OdontorchilusSpecies listFamily plate   Richmond, 1915
Genus FerminiaSpecies listFamily plate   Barbour, 1926
Genus TroglodytesSpecies listFamily plate   Vieillot, 1809
Genus ThryorchilusSpecies listFamily plate   Oberholser, 1904
Genus CistothorusSpecies listFamily plate   Cabanis, 1850#R
Genus ThryothorusSpecies listFamily plate   Vieillot, 1816

Previously far more speciose; genetic data#R show that, as traditionally constituted, present genus was polyphyletic, leading to division of all South American taxa into three further genera (below): Pheugopedius (some of which also range well into Middle America); Thryophilus (also well represented in Middle America); and recently described Cantorchilus. The two species remaining in present genus appear closely allied to Thryomanes#R.

Genus ThryomanesSpecies listFamily plate   P. L. Sclater, 1862
Genus CampylorhynchusSpecies listFamily plate   Spix, 1824
Genus PheugopediusSpecies listFamily plate   Cabanis, 1851

Previously included in Thryothorus (see above).

Genus ThryophilusSpecies listFamily plate   S. F. Baird, 1964

Previously included in Thryothorus (see above).

Genus CinnycerthiaSpecies listFamily plate   Lesson, 1844
Genus CantorchilusSpecies listFamily plate   Mann et al., 2006

Previously included in Thryothorus (see above); present genus recently erected following wide-ranging genetic study of traditional Thryothorus#R.

Genus UropsilaSpecies listFamily plate   P. L. Sclater & Salvin, 1873

Variously placed in Troglodytes, Henicorhina or Thryothorus but, in absence of convincing argument, it is currently retained in its own monospecific genus.

Genus HenicorhinaSpecies listFamily plate   P. L. Sclater & Salvin, 1868
Genus CyphorhinusSpecies listFamily plate   Cabanis, 1844
Family Cinclidae (Dippers)Family species listFamily plate
Genus CinclusSpecies listFamily plate   Borkhausen, 1797
Family Buphagidae (Oxpeckers)Family species listFamily plate
Genus BuphagusSpecies listFamily plate   Brisson, 1760

Often included in Sturnidae, but DNA data#R show it to be a clade basal to Sturnidae and Mimidae and requiring treatment as a separate family.

Family Sturnidae (Starlings)Family species listFamily plate
Subfamily Sturninae
Genus SturnusSpecies listFamily plate   Linnaeus, 1758

Genetic data#R indicate that this genus is sister to all other genera in the family.

Genus CreatophoraSpecies listFamily plate   Lesson, 1847
Genus PastorSpecies listFamily plate   Temminck, 1815

Often subsumed into Sturnus.

Genus AgropsarSpecies listFamily plate   Oates, 1889

Often subsumed into Sturnus; alternatively into Sturnia.

Genus GracupicaSpecies listFamily plate   Lesson, 1831

Often merged into Sturnus.

Genus SturnornisSpecies listFamily plate   Legge, 1879

Often subsumed into Sturnus; alternatively, on occasion, into Sturnia.

Genus LeucopsarSpecies listFamily plate   Stresemann, 1912
Genus SturniaSpecies listFamily plate   Lesson, 1837

Often subsumed into Sturnus; genus Temenuchus (type species S. pagodarum) sometimes used#R, but Sturnia (type species S. sinensis) has priority#R.

Genus SpodiopsarSpecies listFamily plate   Sharpe, 1889

Formerly merged with Sturnus; sometimes name Poliopsar used, but is preoccupied#R.

Genus AcridotheresSpecies listFamily plate   Vieillot, 1816
Genus OnychognathusSpecies listFamily plate   Hartlaub, 1849
Genus SaroglossaSpecies listFamily plate   Hodgson, 1844
Genus NeocichlaSpecies listFamily plate   Sharpe, 1876
Genus GrafisiaSpecies listFamily plate   Bates, 1926
Genus SpeculipastorSpecies listFamily plate   Reichenow, 1879
Genus PholiaSpecies listFamily plate   Reichenow, 1900

Often subsumed into Cinnyricinclus; sometimes into Poeoptera.

Genus PoeopteraSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1854
Genus LamprotornisSpecies listFamily plate   Temminck, 1820
Genus HartlaubiusSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1853

Formerly subsumed into Saroglossa, but genetic data#R support separate treatment.

Genus CinnyricinclusSpecies listFamily plate   Lesson, 1840
Genus HylopsarSpecies listFamily plate   Boetticher, 1940

Often subsumed into Lamprotornis, but genetic data#R support separate treatment.

Genus NotopholiaSpecies listFamily plate   Roberts, 1922

Often subsumed into Lamprotornis, but genetic data#R support separate treatment.

Subfamily Rhabdornithinae

A Philippine endemic group, previously considered closest to Sittidae, Certhiidae and Climacteridae, and traditionally placed in a separate family, Rhabdornithidae; however, revealed by genetic data#R#R to be sister to a larger and considerably more recent radiation of S Asian and Pacific-island starlings and mynas.

Genus RhabdornisSpecies listFamily plate   Reichenbach, 1853
Subfamily Mainatinae
Genus BasilornisSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1850
Genus GoodfellowiaSpecies listFamily plate   E. J. O. Hartert, 1903

Resurrected genus for single species previously placed in Basilornis but found to be paraphyletic with latter#R.

Genus StreptocittaSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1850
Genus SarcopsSpecies listFamily plate   Walden, 1875#R
Genus MinoSpecies listFamily plate   Lesson, 1827
Genus GraculaSpecies listFamily plate   Linnaeus, 1758

Includes Mainatus, a junior synonym; this is the basis of the family-group name Mainatinae Lesson, 1831, which has priority over Graculinae G. R. Gray, 1841#R.

Genus AmpelicepsSpecies listFamily plate   Blyth, 1842
Genus EnodesSpecies listFamily plate   Temminck, 1839
Genus ScissirostrumSpecies listFamily plate   Lafresnaye, 1845
Genus AplonisSpecies listFamily plate   Gould, 1836

Name Aplornis is a few days older than Aplonis, but has been virtually unused, and now formally suppressed#R.

Family Mimidae (Mockingbirds and Thrashers)Family species listFamily plate
Genus MelanotisSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1850
Genus MelanoptilaSpecies listFamily plate   P. L. Sclater, 1858

Sometimes merged into Dumetella.

Genus DumetellaSpecies listFamily plate   C. T. Wood, 1837

In past, name Galeoscoptes was often used, but present name is the older one. Sometimes incorporates Melanoptila.

Genus RamphocinclusSpecies listFamily plate   Lafresnaye, 1843
Genus AlleniaSpecies listFamily plate   Cory, 1891

Previously synonymized with Margarops, to which closely related, but genetic data#R support treatment as a separate taxon.

Genus MargaropsSpecies listFamily plate   P. L. Sclater, 1859
Genus CinclocerthiaSpecies listFamily plate   G. R. Gray, 1840
Genus MimusSpecies listFamily plate   Boie, 1826

Incorporates both Mimodes and Galapagos form Nesomimus#R#R.

Genus OreoscoptesSpecies listFamily plate   S. F. Baird, 1858
Genus ToxostomaSpecies listFamily plate   Wagler, 1831
Family Turdidae (Thrushes)Family species listFamily plate

Formerly included in an outsize Muscicapidae. Genetic studies show present family to be sister to a more narrowly defined Muscicapidae#R#R#R#R; in line with this proximity, many genera traditionally grouped herein have recently been transferred to Muscicapidae, although some placements remain provisional.

Subfamily Myadestinae
Genus SialiaSpecies listFamily plate   Swainson, 1827
Genus GrandalaSpecies listFamily plate   Hodgson, 1843

Taxonomic position unclear. Highly distinctive; placement in its own family, Grandalidae, has been proposed.

Genus NeocossyphusSpecies listFamily plate   G. A. Fischer & Reichenow, 1884
Genus StizorhinaSpecies listFamily plate   Oberholser, 1899

Often merged into Neocossyphus.

Genus MyadestesSpecies listFamily plate   Swainson, 1838

Genetic data indicate that this genus is more closely related to African genera Neocossyphus and Stizorhina than to other New World thrushes (except perhaps Sialia#R).

Subfamily Turdinae
Genus GeomaliaSpecies listFamily plate   Stresemann, 1931

Sister to Zoothera, based on genetic study#R, and sometimes merged into it. In past, sometimes placed in Timaliidae, as certain morphological and plumage features suggest affinities to genus Garrulax; other characteristics, however, such as juvenile plumage, terrestrial foraging behaviour and posture, are typically turdine.

Genus ZootheraSpecies listFamily plate   Vigors, 1832
Genus IxoreusSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1854

Often merged into Zoothera but, apart from underwing pattern, plumage very different.

Genus EntomodestesSpecies listFamily plate   Stejneger, 1883
Genus CichlopsisSpecies listFamily plate   Cabanis, 1851

Has been included in Myadestes, but very different both vocally and in plumage.

Genus RidgwayiaSpecies listFamily plate   Stejneger, 1883

Often included in Zoothera, but plumage very different, apart from underwing pattern.

Genus HylocichlaSpecies listFamily plate   S. F. Baird, 1864

Monotypic genus previously merged into Catharus, but genetic data#R#R indicate that it is closest to Ridgwayia.

Genus CatharusSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1850
Genus ChlamydochaeraSpecies listFamily plate   Sharpe, 1887

In past, placed in Oriolidae and later in Campephagidae, but biomolecular and anatomical analyses situate it in present family, closely related to Cochoa.

Genus CochoaSpecies listFamily plate   Hodgson, 1836
Genus GeokichlaSpecies listFamily plate   S. Müller, 1836

Previously included in Zoothera, but phylogenetic study#R supports resurrection of present genus for Afro-Asian species. Present genus name (1835, delayed probably until early 1836) has been awarded priority over Geocichla (Apr 1836) by First Revisers#R; the two are separately proposed genus-group names, with different type species.

Genus OtocichlaSpecies listFamily plate   Wolters, 1980

Frequently merged into Turdus, but found to be a basal lineage of Turdus thrushes, and sister to Psophocichla #R#R.

Genus PsophocichlaSpecies listFamily plate   Cabanis, 1860

Formerly submerged into Turdus, but recognition supported by genetic data#R#R. May be sister to Otocichla, both being basal in relation to Turdus.

Genus TurdusSpecies listFamily plate   Linnaeus, 1758

Main subject of several important recent studies#R#R#R from which the sometimes surprising sequence of species derives. Currently includes Platycichla, Cichlherminia, Nesocichla and Mimocichla, among others.

Genus CataponeraSpecies listFamily plate   E. J. O. Hartert, 1896

Systematic position unclear; further study needed, particularly with genetics. Balance of evidence, e.g. voice, singing behaviour, tail-raising habit, flushing behaviour and distinct juvenile plumage, favours treatment within present family.

Family Muscicapidae (Old World Flycatchers and Chats)Family species listFamily plate

In past, traditionally treated as an outsize family that also included expanded versions of Sylviidae, Timaliidae and Turdidae; these three were subsequently split off as three separate families, but still in much expanded form as compared to their current treatment. Since publication of HBW, limits of all these families have been dramatically rewritten due to a barrage of occasionally contradictory molecular data. Within present family problems remain, particularly due to incomplete taxon sampling, but near-complete screening to species level has now been attempted for at least a handful of genera (notably Oenanthe and Saxicola), and large elements of consensus have emerged, among them the recognition of four principal lineages, here treated as subfamilies. Most notable development involves transfer of many genera from Turdidae to present family, including Alethe, Cichladusa, Heteroxenicus, Brachypteryx, Heinrichia, Myophonus, Monticola, Thamnolaea, Myrmecocichla, Pogonocichla, Swynnertonia, Stiphrornis, Sheppardia, Cossypha, Xenocopsychus, Irania, Luscinia, Erithacus, Tarsiger, Cercotrichas, Copsychus, Phoenicurus, Saxicola and Oenanthe. Genetic sampling has also revealed extensive paraphyly, with the result that many species have switched genera. Some genera have disappeared completely into synonymy (e.g. Erythropygia), and others have shrunk to just one or two species (e.g. Luscinia), while a few have become substantially larger (e.g. Cercotrichas, Oenanthe).

Subfamily Muscicapinae
Tribe Copsychini

All members traditionally treated in Turdidae, where often placed in Saxicolini.

Genus AletheSpecies listFamily plate   Cassin, 1859

Present basal position in Muscicapidae was proven via molecular methods#R.

Genus TychaedonSpecies listFamily plate   Richmond, 1917

Several genetic studies#R#R have confirmed that traditionally recognized genus Cercotrichas (or Erythropygia) is not monophyletic, but precise arrangement of species, their allocation to different genera and priority of names clarified only via complete sampling at species level; separating C. podobe as sole member of Cercotrichas (as in HBW) is untenable despite very different plumage. A separate genus, Salsolicola, also has been proposed for T. coryphoeus alone#R, and this species differs in basic egg colour (blue, as opposed to white) and song, and nestlings hatch with down feathers (rather than naked), but this arrangement likewise is not supported by molecular studies.

Genus CercotrichasSpecies listFamily plate   Boie, 1831
Genus CopsychusSpecies listFamily plate   Wagler, 1827

Limits redrawn due to extensive molecular evidence, which shows that species traditionally included herein are paraphyletic in relation to Trichixos#R#R#R. Alternative arrangements would involve lumping Trichixos and Kittacincla within Saxicoloides, or importing all three to present genus.

Genus SaxicoloidesSpecies listFamily plate   Lesson, 1832
Genus TrichixosSpecies listFamily plate   Lesson, 1839
Genus KittacinclaSpecies listFamily plate   Gould, 1836
Tribe Muscicapini

Sequence of genera and species follows results of recent molecular sampling#R#R#R, although not all species have been screened to date.

Genus MuscicapaSpecies listFamily plate   Brisson, 1760
Genus BradornisSpecies listFamily plate   A. Smith, 1847

In past, often merged with Melaenornis. Recent genetic data supports its separation, with addition of several species previously placed in Muscicapa#R.

Genus AgricolaSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1854

Previously included either in a much-expanded Melaenornis, or in Bradornis. Some authors#R have instead used Haganopsornis, but this is a junior objective synonym of Agricola, having same type species.

Genus FraseriaSpecies listFamily plate   Bonaparte, 1854

Sometimes subsumed into Melaenornis. Present genus has often been limited to just F. ocreata and F. cinerascens, with F. plumbea and F. griseigularis placed in Myioparus; however, recent genetic data indicate that F. ocreata and F. cinerascens do not form a monophyletic grouping, and various species traditionally placed in Muscicapa have been recovered in this clade#R. One suggested option involves Fraseria being restricted to F. ocreata, Myioparus retained for F. griseigularis and F. plumbea, a new genus, Chapinornis, erected for F. cinerascens#R and Apatema and Cichlomyia or Butalis applied to the species extracted from Muscicapa (not all of which have been screened)#R; a more conservative option seems better at present, with all eight species in Fraseria.

Genus HumblotiaSpecies listFamily plate   A. Milne-Edwards & Oustalet, 1885
Genus MelaenornisSpecies listFamily plate   G. R. Gray, 1840

Includes monospecific Sigelus, Empidornis and Namibornis (the last sometimes even placed in Turdidae on basis of anatomy and feather structure), as a result of molecular studies#R#R. However, M. annamarulae remains untested and, depending on results for this species, genus might prove more appropriately restricted to fewer species.

Subfamily Niltavinae

Recently described taxon, based on results of phylogenetic analysis#R#R; males of most species have blue upperparts.

Genus NiltavaSpecies listFamily plate   Hodgson, 1837
Genus CyanoptilaSpecies listFamily plate   Blyth, 1847
Genus EumyiasSpecies listFamily plate   Cabanis, 1851#R

Includes one species endemic to Buru, previously placed in Rhinomyias, but transferred here based on molecular evidence#R.

Genus AnthipesSpecies listFamily plate   Blyth, 1847

Two species previously included in Ficedula; recently removed from Saxicolinae and awarded separate genus, based on several DNA studies#R