Christiansø Islands, Denmark.
Listed as S. macrura in many older works. Genetic data#R indicate that present species, S. dougallii, S. hirundinacea, S. hirundo and S. vittata may form a monophyletic group that also includes Old World S. striata and S. sumatrana, with S. forsteri and S. trudeaui possibly also part of this group. Can hybridize with S. dougallii. Monotypic.
Iceland, Britain and Netherlands through Scandinavia, and across N Asia, almost exclusively N of Arctic Circle, to Bering Strait, with isolated breeding sites in Kamchatka and Sakhalin I#R, and most northerly breeding area in Franz Josef Land; Aleutians and N Alaska across to NW & NE Greenland, and S to British Columbia and New York, with isolated colony in NW Washington. Migrates to Antarctica, where spends much of N winter in pack-ice zone.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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