In past, sometimes considered conspecific with all three congeners. Often treated as conspecific with C. skua, but mitochondrial DNA, plumage and biometrics all indicate specific status for both forms; moreover, differs more from C. skua than from other two congeners. Occasional hybridization with C. maccormicki and with C. chilensis reported, but hybrids very rare. Race hamiltoni differs only slightly from nominate. Race lonnbergi has been considered a separate species (name sometimes spelt erroneously as loennbergi, but removal of Scandinavian diacritical mark does not justify addition of “e”). Proposed races clarkei (South Orkneys) and intercedens (Kerguelen I) both considered synonyms of lonnbergi#R. Three subspecies recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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