Species name often given as H. tschegrava, particularly in Russian works, name dating from same year as caspia; to avoid further confusion, name tschegrava officially suppressed in 1970#R. Australian and New Zealand birds sometimes separated as race strenua, but characters matched by many individuals of other populations. Monotypic.
North America, N Europe (mainly Baltic), Africa, Madagascar, C & S Asia, Australia (coastal, and sparsely inland), New Zealand; everywhere very local. Fledglings observed in delta of Copper R, suggesting breeding (at least formerly) in Alaska. Disperses more widely in winter.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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