French: Étourneau sansonnet German: Star Spanish: Estornino pinto
Other common names:
Subspecies and Distribution
S. v. vulgaris
Linnaeus, 1758 – Iceland E to Ural Mts, S to N & NE Spain, S Italy, SE Europe and N Ukraine, also on Canary Is; non-breeding also S throughout Iberia and to N Africa.
S. v. faroensis
Feilden, 1872 – Faroe Is.
S. v. zetlandicus
E. J. O. Hartert, 1918 – Outer Hebrides and Shetland Is.
S. v. granti
E. J. O. Hartert, 1903 – Azores.
S. v. poltaratskyi
Finsch, 1878 – E Ural Mts E to L Baikal, S to N & E Kazakhstan, N Kyrgyz Steppes and through N Dzungaria to Mongolia. Non-breeding in SW Asia to NW India.
S. v. tauricus
Buturlin, 1904 – S & E Ukraine and Crimea E to S Russia (Stavropol), and Asia Minor (except E); non-breeding also Middle East.
S. v. caucasicus
T. K. Lorenz, 1887 – Volga Delta, N Caucasus and E Transcaucasia, Azerbaijan, S Caspian Sea region and W & S Iran.
S. v. purpurascens
Gould, 1868 – W Transcaucasia, E Turkey, Georgia and Armenia; non-breeding also Egypt.
S. v. oppenheimi
Neumann, 1915 – SE Turkey and N Iraq.
S. v. porphyronotus
Sharpe, 1888 – E Kazakhstan and extreme NW China (W Xinjiang) S to E Uzbekistan and Tajikistan; non-breeding N Indian Subcontinent.
S. v. nobilior
A. O. Hume, 1879 – NE Iran, S Turkmenistan and N Afghanistan; non-breeding NW Indian Subcontinent.
S. v. humii
W. E. Brooks, 1876 – W Himalayas (Kashmir and Punjab); non-breeding N Indian Subcontinent.
S. v. minor
A. O. Hume, 1873 – Pakistan (Indus Valley).
21 cm; 55–100 g. Medium-sized, short-tailed starling with crown and nape feathers lanceolate, throat feathers also lanceolate; plumage mostly blackish, variably glossed... read more
Male song, heard most of year (but rarely during moult), contains much variation and mimicry; male... read more
Open country, including modified habitats, with access to suitable nesting and roosting sites;... read more
Food and feeding
Essentially omnivorous, diet including plant and animal material; much regional and seasonal variation, reflecting opportunistic response... read more
Season mainly Mar–Jul, with later start and shorter season in N & E of range; often double-brooded, but usually single brood in N... read more
Migratory in N & E of range; tends to be resident in S & W, and in some urban regions.... read more
Status and conservation
Not globally threatened (Least Concern). Common to very common, and locally abundant. Considered one of the most abundant bird species in the world. Recent population... read more
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