Genetic data#R indicate that present species, S. dougallii, S. hirundinacea, S. paradisaea and S. vittata may form a monophyletic group that also includes Old World S. striata and S. sumatrana, with S. forsteri and S. trudeaui possibly also part of this group. In North America, genetic studies of populations in N USA (Minnesota and Wisconsin) and ringing studies in NE USA reveal high degree of gene flow, despite colony site-tenacity. Can hybridize with S. dougallii. C Asian minussensis often considered to be no more than a hybrid form between nominate hirundo and longipennis. Four subspecies normally recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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