Part of the Greater Antillean lineage (see A. agilis, above). Has been thought to be closest to A. collaria and A. ventralis, and these three sometimes believed possibly to be conspecific. Birds of I of Pines formerly awarded race palmarum, now considered doubtfully distinct from nominate. In Bahama Is, race bahamensis extinct in Acklins I, and surviving Bahamian populations proposed as races abacoensis (Great Abaco) and inaguaensis (Great Inagua)#R; in a separate study it was suggested that these three forms represent three distinct phylogenetic species#R; further investigation needed. Four subspecies currently recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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