Populations of W Africa (SW Cameroon westwards) may represent a separate taxon, as they apparently differ vocally from those from S & E of range; although it has been suggested that there is a zone of parapatry around the Cameroon mountains#R, evidence shows R Sanaga as the dividing zone#R. Both forms have same two song types, which are deeper and more homogeneous in W birds, but with high-pitched tone in S & E birds; evidence suggests that each form consistently maintains same song type, and a playback experiment in Ghana showed local birds totally indifferent to "wrong" song type. W birds may be smaller#R. Name "occidentalis" has been attached to this form#R#R, but the name has never been formally proposed and is therefore not available at present#R. Monotypic.
Sierra Leone, Guinea, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana and Togo E through Nigeria, Cameroon, SW Central African Republic, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon and Congo to E DRCongo, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi and NW Tanzania (Minziro Forest Reserve)#R, and S to C DRCongo and NW Angola.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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