Europe = Sweden.
Usually considered conspecific with P. sharpei and P. vaillantii, but differs from former in having face black (on lores, supercilium to above eye, ocular area, moustachial area and in thin line around red malar) vs very little or no black on face (so that face grey with red crown and red malar) (3); red on crown broader, and black of lores and supercilium extending to cover postocular superciliary area and thus adjacent to ear-coverts vs narrower red area allowing a grey-green supercilium to continue over eye and also ear-coverts (2), iris whiter and thus much more contrasting (white in black face vs pale brown in grey face) (1); ear-coverts, neck and breast light green with no grey wash (ns); no black subterminal bars on grey-based red-tipped crown feathers (ns); significant vocal differences involving patterns of dominant frequency and acceleration of the advertising-call (“song”)#R (2); narrow zone of intergradation in S France#R#R (2); differs from vaillantii in red vs black malar on male (3), lack of whitish line along top edge of malar (2), red vs dark-streaked grey forehead and crown of female (2). Has hybridized with P. canus in C Europe#R. Race karelini intergrades with nominate. Race innominatus recently suggested as possibly a separate species on basis of genetic evidence, but plumage differences between it and nominate involve only subtle colour variations#R. Other proposed races are pluvius (Britain), frondium (C Europe), pronus (Italy), dofleini (Macedonia), romaniae (Romania) and saundersi (Caucasus), all of which exhibit insignificant differences which fall within range of variation of other races. Additional named form bampurensis, known only from type locality in R Bampur Basin in SE Iran (where species no longer survives), said to have particularly well-marked tailbars and heavy barring over entire lower underparts; validity and possible survival of this isolated form require further investigation. Three subspecies recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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