Europe = Sweden.
Closely related to J. ruficollis. Several additional races described from Asia, but geographical variation largely clinal, also somewhat random, and individual variation notable, with much overlap in characters, and all are considered better lumped with nominate race: birds breeding from Ural Mts to R Yenisey named as sarudnyi on basis of paler plumage with fewer markings below, and others farther E and in China as race chinensis on basis of more barred plumage, but both populations contain individuals closely resembling or identical to W birds; Japanese birds described as japonica, more barred and with more rufous in plumage, but some are identical to W (including European) breeders. Four subspecies recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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