J. R. Forster, 1772,
north-western Ontario, Canada.
Affinities uncertain. Population from Kentei Mts, in N Mongolia, has been described as race elisabethae, but doubtfully separable from lapponica. Recent genetic study of North American populations indicates that individuals in Sierra Nevada (California) represent a distinct lineage, for which subspecific name yosemitensis has been proposed#R; no associated plumage, morphometric or vocal differences reported, however, and further study desirable. Two subspecies currently recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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