French: Monarque d’Hawaï German: Hawaiimonarch Spanish: Elepaio de Hawái
J. F. Gmelin, 1789,
Sandwich Islands, Kealakekua Bay, Hawaii.
Subspecies and Distribution
C. s. sandwichensis
(J. F. Gmelin, 1789) – Hawaii I (drier areas in W & S).
C. s. bryani
H. D. Pratt, 1979 – NC Hawaii I (high dry slopes of Mauna Kea).
C. s. ridgwayi
Stejneger, 1887 – E Hawaii I (wet slopes in Hilo district).
14 cm; 12–18 g, male on average c. 10% larger than female. Distinctive, with long graduated tail, conspicuous white rump and wingbars. Male nominate race has dark brown... read more
Primary song given by male (during breeding season up to 30 songs per hour, continuously for 10... read more
On Hawaii most common in closed-canopy wet to mesic forest at higher elevations, reaching highest... read more
Food and feeding
Arthropods, particularly insects and spiders (Araneae) of both native and introduced species. Stomach contents included larvae and adults... read more
Mid-Mar to Aug (most clutches laid late Apr to mid-Jun) on Hawaii, and from early Jan (most clutches laid from Mar, most young late Mar to... read more
Sedentary. Most remain on same territory until death (site-fidelity 98% for males, 93% for females... read more
Status and conservation
VULNERABLE. Restricted-range species: present in Central Hawaiian Islands EBA. Still common on Hawaii and Kauai; less so on Oahu. On Hawaii in 1980s, nominate race had... read more
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