Taxonomy complex and not fully understood. Several authors have proposed that all or most races are not tenable, and that the species should be treated as monotypic or, alternatively, restricted to just nominate race and three others, from very pale perpallidus to dark impediens and an intermediate fulviventris (with wide degree of variation within and between island forms). Bismarck forms perpallidus and impediens (perhaps with nigrirostris and fulviventris) may merit treatment as a separate species; nigrirostris synonymized with impediens by some authors#R. Other proposed races here considered too poorly differentiated to warrant recognition are jacobii (Talaud Is), disjunctus (N Sumbawa, islands in Flores Sea), intercedens (Tukangbesi Is), harterti (Moluccas), brunneus (Great Banda, in S Moluccas) and kisserensis (E Lesser Sundas), all synonymized with nominate. Race commutatus sometimes included in nominate#R. Eleven subspecies currently recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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