Hybridizes with T. incei, but interbreeding very limited as ranges barely overlap; further study needed. Each race differs somewhat from others in morphology (illex smaller and darker, periophthalmica with dark undertail-coverts and much more restricted white on belly in male) and in voice (illex with slightly different vocabulary, periophthalmica with lower pitch owing to lack of upslurs in calls, but both with small sample sizes)#R; there is therefore a fairly strong possibility of each meriting species rank, but more research needed. Three subspecies recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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