Three races often recognized: large and pale awokera (Honshu and nearby islands), smaller and darker horii (Shikoku, Kyushu, Tsushima), and smallest and darkest takatsukasae (Tanegashima, Yakushima). These, however, simply reflect a cline of decreasing size and increasing plumage darkness from N to S, and division into geographical races seems unjustified. Monotypic.
Japan from Honshu S to Shikoku, Kyushu, Yakushima and Tanegashima, and including offshore islands of Tobishima, Awashima, Sado and Tsushima.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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