M. H. C. Lichtenstein, 1823,
coasts of Brazil.
Species often treated as monotypic (e.g. in HBW), but recent studies of biometrics and wing pattern#R, augmented by subsequent sex-separated analyses of these parameters#R, indicate that recognition of subspecies is warranted, a conclusion supported by recent molecular study#R; but geographical delimitation of races requires further study, e.g. populations in S Patagonia appear close to austrinus, although they may be intermediate between latter and nominate. Form vetula recently suggested as perhaps a separate species on basis of eyering colour and skull morphology#R; these characters, however, here considered not strong enough to justify species status. Six subspecies tentatively recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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