coasts of India.
Genetic data suggest may be sister to T. maximus#R. Previously thought close to T. elegans and T. sandvicensis, and perhaps T. bernsteini. Often treated as monotypic. Races based on subtle variation in plumage tone of upperparts and on size, but much overlap and intergradation, as well as intermediate populations, and distributions confused. Race emigratus may be synonymous with torresii, although this is biogeographically illogical. Mediterranean and Red Sea birds sometimes classified together as race par, but indistinguishable from nominate. Earlier specific name media allegedly invalid, as preoccupied; but this is disputed#R. Three subspecies recognized.
Also breeds (possibly emigratus) in Persian Gulf.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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