J. F. Gmelin, 1789,
Guangzhou, Guangdong, south China.
Closely related to, and often interbreeds with, P. taivanus (see below). As nominate race and hainanus (one strong character: all-black crown) both occur on Hainan, some authors have treated these as separate species; their breeding ranges, however, do not overlap. Molecular study#R has proposed split of formosae (with orii) from sinensis on basis of mtDNA evidence alone, and also suggests split of hainanus, despite no genetic support; races formosae and orii sometimes placed in P. taivanus, apparently in error. Putative race kobayashii (Ishigaki, in S Ryukyu Is) is indistinguishable from orii; hoyi (middle Yangtze Valley) was described from a juvenile specimen, and is a junior synonym of nominate. Four subspecies recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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