coasts of the Adriatic Sea.
Some recent authors place this species and other “black-headed gulls” in genus Ichthyaetus (see L. ichthyaetus, above). Formerly, present species often considered to include L. relictus. Has hybridized with L. ridibundus and probably with L. canus. Monotypic.
Mainly on Black Sea coasts of Ukraine, with recent spread to N Caucasian Plains and Azerbaijan (Baku Archipelago); also at scattered localities throughout Europe, with large numbers in Netherlands, S France (Camargue), Italy, Greece and Turkey, also limited breeding in S England (increasing), Belgium, NE Germany, E Spain and C Europe. Winters in Mediterranean, Black Sea, NW Europe and NW Africa.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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