North America = New York.
Traditionally included in L. excubitor, but recent study#R supports treatment as a separate species. Characterized by narrow dark scaling below in adult plumage on a shade darker underparts (3); upperparts tinged ochre (1); and parapatry (or even narrow sympatry) in one area of Mongolia between race mollis and “Steppe Grey Shrike” L. e. pallidirostris#R (3); but anomalous race bianchii, genetically the most differentiated, fails to conform to this plumage pattern, resembling instead L. e. excubitor. In Canada, invictus apparently interbreeds with borealis in NE Manitoba and N Ontario and is sometimes synonymized with it; sibiricus and mollis intergrade in NW Mongolia; funereus sometimes lumped into mollis. Six subspecies provisionally recognized.
Only subscribers are able to see the bibliography. Login or Subscribe to get access to a lot of extra features!