Since 1940s until recently, has been considered conspecific with M. fuliginosus, but differs in its distinctly darker body plumage (2); red on male’s face extending from forehead back to forecrown, anterior ear-coverts and malar vs confined to submoustachial streak (2) and burgundy vs scarlet (2); smaller white spots on chin, throat, upper neck, neck sides and hindcrown (ns); overall slightly larger size, with notably longer tail (effect size for tail 3.6; score 2); and call resembling a “soccer referee’s whistle”, apparently lacking in fuliginosus. Races mayri and parkesi differ little from nominate, and may be better synonymized. Three subspecies currently recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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