near Selenga River, Transbaikalia.
Closely related to E. yessoensis and E. schoeniclus, and all three sometimes placed in genus Schoeniclus. Race minor of E. schoeniclus sometimes included in present species. Significance of geographical variation not fully understood, and possibly linked to variation in habitat preferences; further study required. Race lydiae, although weakly marked in plumage, differs in ecology, but whether it differs in voice (as stated in HBW) unclear; research needed. Race polaris exhibits partially clinal variation, with gradation towards darker plumage and more heavily streaked rump in E of range. Proposed race montana and its synonym suschkiniana (described from SE Russian Altai) considered synonymous with nominate, and latolineata (from Kolyma Peninsula) with polaris. Three subspecies recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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