Forms a species group with L. curvirostra and L. scotica, and all have sometimes been considered conspecific. Has hybridized with former, and recently found to hybridize with L. scotica. Recent genetic studies indicate limited differences between the three in Europe, indicating that they are not in total reproductive isolation, but differences in bill size and in flight and excitement calls considered sufficient to restrict widespread interbreeding; further research required (see under L. scotica). Monotypic.
NE Scotland, Fennoscandia, Estonia and N Latvia S to E Lithuania and (rare) extreme E Poland, E to SW Siberia (R Pechora).
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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