Bogosland, western Eritrea.
Thought to be closest to C. stellatus. Birds from SW Ethiopia formerly separated as race ludovicianus, which was sometimes considered a separate species; Niger population formerly separated as race vinaceabrunneus and birds from Ennedi Mts, in S Chad, as malbranti. Variation in plumage coloration, however, is extensive and widespread, and possibly correlated with soil type#R, but no geographical pattern evident. Monotypic.
S Mauritania and N Senegal E to Eritrea, NW Somalia and NW Kenya, and SW Saudi Arabia S into Yemen. Winters from Senegal and Liberia across to SW South Sudan and possibly SW Ethiopia, and S to N DRCongo and Tanzania.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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