Charleston, South Carolina, USA.
Formerly treated as conspecific with A. assimilis, but they differ markedly in sexual dimorphism, in mating and nesting behaviour and in size; molecular data support treatment as separate species. Subspecific taxonomy complex. Distinctive race gubernator has been suggested as being a separate species (often including californicus and mailliardorum as races)#R; was possibly isolated in past, but now intergrades with nelsoni. Over most of E USA and Canada geographical variation runs along smooth clines and delimitation of races rather arbitrary; several independent studies indicate minimal differences in DNA between most races in E North America. Some authors suggest that arctolegus and fortis are better synonymized with nominate; mearnsi and floridanus also sometimes treated thus#R. Additional proposed races are, in USA, stereus (described from Barr, Colorado), zastereus (Boise, Idaho) and heterurus (Fort Wingate, New Mexico), all tentatively included in fortis; and matudae (Palizada, in Campeche, Mexico) and brevirostris (N Honduras), all treated as synonyms of richmondi. Twenty-two subspecies recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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