Morphometric analysis links this species most closely with L. californicus. Has possibly hybridized with L. canus and with L. fuscus (of race graellsii). W population significantly larger than E one and possibly subspecifically distinct. Currently treated as monotypic.
NW USA (N California, E Washington) and S Canada (interior British Columbia) across prairie provinces and N mountain and plains states; Great Lakes to Maritime Provinces. Winters in S portion of breeding range S to Gulf coast, Central America and Greater Antilles, increasingly ranging to Lesser Antilles.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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