Kamchatka to Japan.
Usually treated as a subspecies of M. fusca (with race deglandi) or as subspecies of M. deglandi if latter separated from M. fusca, but here treated as a species in its own right (following recent study#R). Male differs from male fusca in its smoother-slanting forehead and steeper (vertically angled) and higher-reaching, sometimes hooked-over bill protuberance (morphometric character gauged at 3); yellow-sided red-centred vs all-yellow upper mandible, former with no black cutting edge (3); feathering around bill protuberance extending forward and down, then cutting away sharply, leaving panel of feathers at base of upper mandible vs cutting back and away, creating no side-panel of feathering (3); greatly increased black on base of upper mandible (so yellow does not extend back so far) (2); longer-tailed subocular eye-patch (ns). Male differs from male deglandi in the same first character (although higher reach of bill protuberance in deglandi reduces score: effect size 3.56, score 2); yellow-sided red-centred vs red-sided yellow-centred upper mandible, former with no black cutting edge (3); flanks all black vs dark brown (2). Monotypic.
Breeds in Siberia from Yenisey Basin E to Kamchatka, S to Mongolia; locally in NE Kazakhstan. Winters along coasts of Kamchatka and Commander Is S to Japan, Korea and China.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
Only subscribers are able to see the bibliography. Login or Subscribe to get access to a lot of extra features!