Has sometimes been regarded as conspecific with E. franciscanus, but such treatment not supported by molecular data. In captivity, male bonded to female E. ardens produced hybrid offspring. Several races have been proposed, e.g. nigrifrons (described from Karema, on E shore of L Tanganyika, in Tanzania) and, in South Africa, turgidus (from Citrusdal, in W Western Cape) and sundevalli (from SE Eastern Cape); species, however, varies clinally in size, with largest birds in SW South Africa, and no populations constantly separable on basis of morphometrics or plumage characteristics. Treated as monotypic.
E & S DRCongo, SW Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, S Kenya, Tanzania, W & S Angola, Zambia, Malawi, Namibia, N & E Botswana, Zimbabwe and C & S Mozambique S to South Africa, Swaziland and lowlands of Lesotho.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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