Some forms currently considered races of present species may prove to merit treatment as full species, e.g. has been suggested that resident ruficollis and S race jota (including “falklandicus”) possibly separate species from mostly migratory N nominate and septentrionalis#R. N populations of nominate race sometimes separated as meridionalis, and lowland populations from S coastal Ecuador to Chile and Falkland Is as falklandicus, but variation seems to be generally clinal. Further study required. Four subspecies usually recognized.
Introduced (nominate aura) to Puerto Rico.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
Only subscribers are able to see the bibliography. Login or Subscribe to get access to a lot of extra features!