Perhaps a member of the putative species-group centred on M. atricapilla (which see). Sometimes considered conspecific with M. guatemalae, but vocally distinct. Isolated races roraimae and napensis may constitute two separate species; a recent treatment as such#R#R, however, failed to provide comparisons involving all three taxa, so that claimed morphological and vocal distinctiveness of each is impossible to judge. Additional forms described from Peru (helleri) and Bolivia (bolivianus) here merged with napensis, but may merit subspecific recognition. Form centralis, here included in nominate vermiculatus, is sometimes recognized as separate species (range Panama to SW Ecuador) “based primarily on its distinctive voice”#R; further investigation needed. Form inexpectus (Costa Rica) included in nominate. Three subspecies recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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