Closely related to D. hodgei, and sometimes considered conspecific. NW race hodgsonii appears to differ from others in morphology and voice, and may be a full species#R, while recent study found confusus to be genetically distinct and suggested that this and some other island forms possibly merit species status#R; comprehensive analytical study required in order to clarify internal taxonomy of this complex of taxa. Form esthloterus (supposedly with thinner bill and less white on head) is provisionally recognized here, but may not be safely separable from confusus. Proposed race buettikoferi (from Nias I) appears indistinguishable from nominate; samarensis (from Samar, Calicoan and Bohol, in E Philippines) synonymized with pectoralis. Subspecies name philippinensis frequently misspelt as philippensis. Race cebuensis almost certainly extinct. Fifteen subspecies provisionally recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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