no locality, but probably northern Italy.
Relationships among Oxyura species uncertain; present species considered by some to be closely related to O. jamaicensis, but probably more closely linked to O. maccoa#R. In Spain, hybridization in the wild with O. jamaicensis (spread from introduced English population) has produced fertile progeny (viable offspring in back-crosses with both parental species); genetic diversity in expanding European population of jamaicensis found to exceed that of native Spanish leucocephala population, and, unless effective control of jamaicensis continues, genetic introgression will severely compromise the survival of O. leucocephala as a genetically and evolutionarily distinct species#R. Monotypic.
Breeds from SW Mediterranean Basin E, patchily, to extreme NW China and Mongolia; main population in S Russia and Kazakhstan. Winters in Mediterranean, Middle East and S Asia to NW India. Formerly more widespread in Mediterranean area.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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