French: Cincle plongeur German: Wasseramsel Spanish: Mirlo acuático europeo
Europe = Sweden
Subspecies and Distribution
C. c. hibernicus
E. J. O. Hartert, 1910 – W Scotland (including Inner Hebrides) and Ireland.
C. c. gularis
(Latham, 1801) – Scotland (except W), N, C & W England and Wales.
C. c. cinclus
(Linnaeus, 1758) – Scandinavia E to NW Russia (E to R Pechora), also C & SW France, NW Iberia, Corsica and probably Sardinia.
C. c. aquaticus
Bechstein, 1797 – #RC & S Europe (Belgium and E France S to E & S Iberia, Italy, Sicily and Greece).
C. c. olympicus
Madarász, 1903 – Cyprus.
C. c. uralensis
Serebrovski, 1927 – Ural Mts (W Russia).
C. c. minor
Tristram, 1870 – NW Africa.
C. c. caucasicus
Madarász, 1903 – Turkey, Caucasus, N Iraq and N Iran.
C. c. persicus
Witherby, 1906 – SW Iran (Zagros Mts).
C. c. rufiventris
Tristram, 1884 – Lebanon and W Syria.
C. c. leucogaster
Bonaparte, 1850 – SC Russia (Altai Mts E to Transbaikalia) S to N Afghanistan, NW Pakistan, NW China (Tien Shan, W Kunlun Shan) and Mongolia.
C. c. cashmeriensis
Gould, 1860 – N side of W & C Himalayas from N Pakistan E to Sikkim.
C. c. przewalskii
Bianchi, 1905 – #RN Bhutan and C China (S Gansu and NW Sichuan S to SE & E Xizang).
17–20 cm; male 53–76 g and female 46–72 g (nominate), male 60–76 g and female 50–67 g (gularis), sexes combined c. 41–65 g (... read more
Male song high-pitched, piercing, loud melodious warbling or trilling, comprises variety of notes... read more
Fast-flowing, clear-water rocky streams and rivers with riffles and exposed rocks, and with... read more
Food and feeding
Freshwater insects and larvae; more rarely, marine invertebrates in coastal areas. Principal prey mayfly (Ephemeroptera) and stonefly (... read more
Laying Feb–Jun in British Is, mid-Mar to May in NW & C Europe, early May to early Jun in Scandinavia; mid-Mar to May in NW Africa... read more
Resident, but some post-breeding descent from high altitudes to more lowland rivers, sometimes to... read more
Status and conservation
Not globally threatened (Least Concern). Common and widespread on suitable watercourses. Estimated European population 120,000–300,000 pairs. Densities highest in... read more
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