(Cardinalidae; Ϯ Northern Cardinal C. cardinalis) Specific name Loxia cardinalis Linnaeus, 1758. "Mercurialis affirms, that by the Portugues it is commonly called, The Cardinal bird, because it is of a scarlet (purpurei) colour, and seems to wear on its Head a red hat" (Ray 1678); "20. CARDINALIS VIRGINIANUS, Nob.  C. ruber; gula et capistro nigris; cauda valde rotundata; rostro conico, subdentato.  Hab. Throughout N. America.  Finding in the collection of the Zoological Society two beautiful undescribed species of this my new form, I take this opportunity of making them known, especially as both come from Mexico. They all preserve the short rounded wings and lengthened tail, and even the crested head and red colours. As to the different shape of the bills, it is only an additional proof of the little importance to be attached to the form of that member in the conirostral birds.   CARDINALIS PHŒNICEUS, Gould.  ...  the country south of the Bay of Honduras.   CARDINALIS SINUATUS, Nob.  ...  Western parts of Mexico." (Bonaparte 1838); "Genus 159. CARDINALIS, Nob.   233. CARDINALIS VIRGINIANUS, Nob. (Loxia cardinalis, L.)  Aud. pl. 159.  Southern parts." (Bonaparte 1838); "Cardinalis Bonaparte, 1838,2 Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 5 (1837), p. 111. Type, by subsequent designation (G. R. Gray, 1840, List Genera Birds, p. 43), Cardinalis virginianus Bonaparte = Loxia cardinalis Linnaeus.  ...  2 Cardinalis Bonaparte is No. 1728 on the Official List of Generic Names in Zoology (Opinion 784, Bull. Zool. Nomencl., 23, pp. 201-209, 1966)." (Paynter in Peters 1970, XIII, 220).
Synon. Pyrrhuloxia, Richmondena.
● (syn. Piranga Ϯ Scarlet Tanager P. olivacea) Med. L. cardinalis  cardinal, bishop  < L. cardo, cardinis  hinge, pivot.; "b. TANGARZYK.  CARDINALIS.  Tangara - Cardinal. Fran.  ...  n. p. Tanagra rubra. GL." (Jarocki 1821).

Search for more names on the Key to Scientific Names in Ornithology by James A. Jobling.
Recommended citation
Jobling, J. A. (2019). Key to Scientific Names in Ornithology. In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.) (2019). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. (retrieved from on 20 January 2019).