PENELOPE

(Cracidae; Ϯ Marail Guan P. marail) L. pene  almost, nearly; Gr. λοφος lophos  crest. Merrem gave no explanation for his generic appellation, but it might have alluded to the partial crest of the Marail Guan compared to the full crest of the Common Piping Guan Pipile pipile described (Weishaubiger YakuPenelope leucolophos) in the pages and plate XII following (cf. Gr. myth. Penelope, a Greek princess, daughter of Icarius and wife of Ulysses, King of Ithaca, and who spun a braided web or tapestry to deceive many importunate admirers during the long absence of her husband at the siege of Troy. She had promised to choose amongst them upon the completion of the tapestry, but every night unravelled the previous days labour! Another source, citing Penelope’s promiscuity, identifies the web as the limb and facial tattooes worn by woodland revellers during orgies dedicated to the mountain goddess (Gr. πηνη pēnē  thread, web; ωπε ōpe  aspect, look). Teixeira 1995, suggested that the generic term could properly be derived from Penelope, in allusion to the reticulated pattern on the breast and foreneck of many guans); "GRÜNGLÄNZENDEN YAKU  ...  Der Kopf ist klein, und mit einer niedrigen Holle (crista) längerer Federn bekleidet. Nach EDWARDS soll man sie auch ohne Holle antreffen, wodurch seiner Meynung nach die Männchen von dem Weibchen sich unterscheiden  ...  [plate XI] Grünglänzender Yaku. Penelope Jacupema" (Merrem 1786); "Penelope Merrem, Av. rar. Icon. et Descr., 1786, fasc. 2, p. 39. Type, by subsequent designation, Penelope marail Gmelin = Penelope iacupema Merrem = Phasianus marail P. L. S. Müller. (Lesson, Man. d'Orn., 2, 1828, p. 214.)" (Peters 1934, II, 12).
Var. PonolopePenelophe.
Synon. Gouan, Salpiza, Stegnolaema.
● (syn. Aythya Ϯ Common Pochard A. ferina) Gr. πηνελοψ pēnelops, πηνελοπος pēnelopos  type of duck; "19. LE MILLOUIN.  ...  PENELOPE" (Brisson 1760): based on "Penelops primus" of Aldrovandus 1599-1603, "Penelope" of Jonston 1650-1653 and Charleton 1668, and Anas ferina Linnaeus, 1758.

Search for more names on the Key to Scientific Names in Ornithology by James A. Jobling.
Recommended citation
Jobling, J. A. (2018). Key to Scientific Names in Ornithology. In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.) (2018). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. (retrieved from www.hbw.com on 13 December 2018).