(Estrildidae; Ϯ Crimson Seedcracker P. sanguineus) Gr. πυρην purēn, πυρηνος purēnos  fruit-stone; -εστης -estēs  -eater  < εδω edō  to eat; "CRIMSON NUT-CRACKER.  Pirenestes sanguineus, SWAINS.  ...  It may safely be affirmed that this extraordinary bird has the thickest and most massive bill in the feathered creation. Both mandibles, indeed, are of an enormous size; but contrary to what we find in the generality of birds, the under one is even still more powerful than the upper. What are the nuts or seeds, the breaking of which requires such an amazing strength of bill, is perfectly unknown; but they must be of a stone-like hardness." (Swainson 1837 (Nat. Hist. Bds. Western Africa)); "Pyrenestes, Sw.  Bill enormous, perfectly conic; the two mandibles equal, or the lower somewhat thicker: upper mandible with an obsolete tooth at its base; the tip entire; the commissure straight. Wings and tail rounded; first quill very small, spurious.  The Old World.  P. sanguinea. W. Af. i. pl. 9.  frontalis. Part 5. No. 116" (Swainson 1837 (Nat. Hist. Classification Bds.)); "Pirenestes1 Swainson, 1837, Birds W. Africa, 1, p. 156. Type, by monotypy, Pirenestes sanguineus Swainson.  ...  1 "Pirenestes" is a lapsus for Pyrenestes which was used five times in the text and in Swainson, 1837, Class. Birds, 2, p. 279 [sic = 277]." (Traylor in Peters 1968, XIV, 318).
Var. Pirenestes (original spelling).

Search for more names on the Key to Scientific Names in Ornithology by James A. Jobling.
Recommended citation
Jobling, J. A. (2019). Key to Scientific Names in Ornithology. In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.) (2019). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. (retrieved from on 23 January 2019).