Key to Scientific Names in Ornithology

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Nahuatl/Aztec onomatopoeic name Coyolcozque for a partridge.
● ex “Coyolcozque” of Hernandez 1651, and “Coyolcos” of de Buffon 1770-1783 (subsp. Colinus virginianus).
● ex “Coyolcozque” or “Coli sonalis” of Willughby 1676, and Ray 1713, “Coturnix mexicana” of Brisson 1760, “Coyolcos” of de Buffon 1770-1783, and “Lesser Mexican Quail” of Latham 1783 (syn. Colinus virginianus coyolcos).


Original spelling of specific name Tetrao coyolcos Statius Müller, 1776 (= subsp. Colinus virginianus).

cozumelae / cozumelana

Cozumel I., Quintana Roo, Mexico (Mayan Ah Cuzamil Peten  island of swallows).


L. cracens, cracentis  slender, neat, graceful.


Creole onomatopoeia Cra-Cra for the Green Heron on Martinique; ex “Cancrophagus americanus” of Brisson 1760, and “Cracra” of de Buffon 1770-1783 (syn. Butorides virescens).


(syn. Garrulus Ϯ Eurasian Jay G. glandarius) Gr. κρακτης kraktēs  bawler  < κραζω krazō  to scream; "G. 6  CRACTES *), Sv. Skrika.   1. infaustus  ...  2. glandarius  ...  *) Hab. gener. fere Corvi; sed capite proportionaliter majore et rostro multo minore; pennis capitis longis pro lubitio erigentibus. - Sine omni dubio hoc Genus distinctum; sed nomen genericum Garrulus Brissonis speciebus pluribus avium ut triviale attributum, ineptum est, unde Cractes, e voce Kρακτης (clamator), adoptavimus." (Billberg 1828); "Ridgway (Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, pt. 3: 750, 1904) proposed the use of Cractes Billberg (Synop. Faun. Scand., 1, pt. 2: 14, 1928 [sic]) as an earlier valid name for Perisoreus Bonaparte (Giorn. Acadico, 49: 42, 1831), and cited Corvus infaustus Linnaeus as type species.  ...  From this paragraph it is clear that Billberg was simply proposing Cractes as a substitute for Garrulus to which he took exception. He designated no type for his genus. Consequently the type first to be established for either generic name became automatically the type of the other (see International Rules of Zoological Nomenclature, Art. 30, II, f). Gray (Cat. Gen. Subgen. Birds: 37, 1840) selected "Garrulus glandarius (L.)" as the type of Garrulus, antedating Ridgway by many years." (J. Zimmer 1944).


(syn. Numenius Ϯ Eurasian Curlew N. arquata) Gr. κρακτικος kraktikos  noisy  < κραζω krazō  to scream; ορνις ornis, ορνιθος ornithos  bird; "CRACTICORNIS, G. R. Gray (1841).  Numenius, p. L. (1735). Mœhr. (1752). Lath. (1790).  Scolopax, L.  Tantalus, Lacep. (1800-1801).  Phæopas, Steph. (1824).   C. arquata, (L.) G. R. Gray.  Pl. enl. 818" (G. Gray 1841).    Var. Craticornis.


(Artamidae; Ϯ Hooded Butcherbird C. cassicus) Gr. κρακτικος kraktikos  noisy, clamorous; "CRACTICIDAE  ...  MEMBERS OF THIS FAMILY are among the best known of Australian birds. They are  ...  usually bold and at times aggressive, have loud characteristic voices, sometimes harsh but often also tuneful." (Macdonald 1973); "99. CASSICAN, Cracticus.  Paradisea, Corvus, Linn. Gm. Lath.  Bec droit et glabre à la base, alongé, fléchi à la pointe; mandibules échancrées vers le bout; la supérieure prolongée et arrondie dans les plumes du front.   Esp. Cassican. — Calybé, Buff." (Vieillot 1816); "Cracticus Vieillot, 1816, Analyse, p. 37. Type, by monotypy, Cassican — Calybé Buffon = Ramphastos cassicus Boddaert." (Amadon in Peters 1962, XV, 166).
Var. Cradicus.
Synon. Barita, Bulestes.


W. H. Craddock (1874-1964) British forestry officer in Burma and Malaya (subsp. Suthora verreauxi).


Prof. James Birkett Cragg (1910-1996) British ecologist (subsp. Tringa totanus).


Gr. κραμβος krambos  grape-blight (no doubt in allusion to the association of the Northern Wheatear with the grape-harvest) (syn. Oenanthe oenanthe).


● John David Gathorne-Hardy 4th Earl of Cranbrook and 4th Baron Medway of Hemsted Park (1900-1978) Trustee of BMNH 1964-1973 (subsp. Grammatoptila striata).
● John Stewart Gathorne-Hardy 2nd Earl of Cranbrook and 2nd Baron Medway of Hemsted Park (1839-1911) British politician (syn. Mirafra rufocinnamomea tigrina).


John Cranch (1785-1816) British naturalist, explorer in tropical Africa 1816 (Pternistis).