Key to Scientific Names in Ornithology

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(syn. Melanochlora Ϯ Sultan Tit M. sultanea) Gr. κραταιος krataios  mighty, strong; ονυξ onux, ονυχος onukhos  claw; "CRATAIONYX, n.g.  ... Pedes validi syndactyli; digitis medio posteriori inter se æquantibus, exterioribus interioribus vix longioribus.  Tarsi validi elongati; ungues validi, posteriores maximi.  ... CRATAIONYX FLAVA.  ... Native name, Seray Seray" (Eyton 1839).  Var. Crataeonyx.


Ngorongoro Crater, Mbulu District, Tanganyika (= Tanzania).


(syn. Turdoides Ϯ Blackcap Babbler T. reinwardtii) Gr. κρατερος krateros  strong, stout; πους pous, ποδος podos  foot; "CRATEROPUS Reinwardii.  Black-masked, or Reinwardts Thrush.   Family Merulidæ.  Sub-family Macropodianæ.   GENERIC CHARACTER.  Bill hard, compressed, either slightly notched or entire: wings and tail rounded, the former short, the latter broad.  Feet remarkably large and strong; the two outer fore toes equal, the middle lengthened; hind toe and claw very large: claws compressed, strong, and but slightly curved.  ...  OF the habits of this plain, but singularly formed bird, we know nothing.  It is, we believe, one of the numerous discoveries made by that able Zoologist, Professor Reinwardt, in the Indian Islands, and should it not be already described, (a point we cannot fully ascertain,) we trust it may be allowed to bear the name of one, whose important labours merit the thanks and respect of all the scientific world.  ...  The feet, in all their details, are uncommonly strong, while the wings are feeble and much rounded. The fifth and sixth quills are longest; the scapular quills and the tail feathers, when held to the light, exhibit transverse dark shades." (Swainson 1831); "Crateropus Swainson, 1831 (Aug.), Zool. Ill., ser. 2, 2, no. 17, pl. 80. Type, by monotypy, Crateropus reinwardtii Swainson." (Deignan in Peters 1964, X, 331) (see Cratopus).


(Acanthizidae; Ϯ Rusty Mouse-warbler C. murina) Gr. κρατερος krateros  stout, strong; σκελος skelos, σκελεος skeleos  leg; "This endemic genus is characterized by the terrestrial habit, melodious song, long legs, compact body form, and abbreviated tail." (Beehler & Pratt 2016); "f''. Tail of moderate length, not hidden by the plumes of the rump.  ...  l'''. Bill equal in height and depth.  i4. Rictal bristles scarcely perceptible. . . .31. CRATEROSCELIS, p. 590.   ...   31. CRATEROSCELISRange. New Guinea, Waigiou, Mysol, Aru Island.  ...  1. Crateroscelis murina.  ...  2. Crateroscelis monacha." (Sharpe 1883); "Crateroscelis Sharpe, 1883, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., 7, pp. 507 (in key), 590. Type, by subsequent designation, Myiothera murina Temminck MS = Brachypteryx murinus P. L. Sclater." (Mayr in Peters 1986, XI, 411). Recent work indicates that this genus should be subsumed into Origma.


L. craterum  of the craters < cratera or crater, crateris  volcanic crater  < Gr. κρατηρ kratēr, κρατηρος kratēros  crater, bowl  < κεραννυμι kerannumi  to mix.



cratitia / cratitius

L. cratitius or craticius  wattled, composed of lattice-work  < cratis  wicker-work.
● “from the gape, down each side of the throat for five eighths of an inch, a naked fleshy appendage, free at the lower end, of a beautiful lilac colour and very conspicuous in the living bird” (Gould 1841) (Lichenostomus).


Original spelling of specific name Coccothraustes crataegus Blyth, 1833 (= syn. Coccothraustes coccothraustes).


Original spelling of specific name Bombycilla crataegus Wood, 1835 (= syn. Bombycilla garrulus).


(syn. Turdoides Ϯ Southern Pied Babbler T. bicolor) Gr. κρατος kratos  strength, power; πους pous, ποδος podos  foot; "Genus Cratopus, SWAINS.   Cratopus bicolor, JARD. — Black and White Cratopus  ...  The general appearance of these birds is, — a strong, somewhat curved, bill; loose plumage, considerably elongated on the backs, like the puff-backed shrikes, (malaconoti,) or the American bush-shrikes, (thamnophili;) the wings rather short and rounded, the tail long and graduated, and the tarsi and feet strong" (Jardine 1831); "Cratopus Jardine, 1831 (Feb.), Edinburgh Journ. Nat. Geogr. Sci., 3, p. 97. Type, by monotypy, Cratopus bicolor Jardine. Not Cratopus Schönherr, 1826, Coleoptera." (Deignan in Peters, 1964, X, 331) (see Crateropus). 


(syn. Piculus Ϯ Yellow-throated Woodpecker P. flavigula) Gr. κραυγος kraugos  woodpecker (cf. κραυγασος kraugasos  shouter  < κραυγαζω kraugazō  to shout); "Gen. CRAUGASUS **) Nob. - Kronen-Laubspecht.   Chrysopicus (!) Bp. 1854 (nec Chrysopicos (!) Malh. 1849). Lampropicus (!) Malh. 1861.   267.-1. C. flavigula Nob.   Pic à gorge jaune de Cayenne Buff. Pl. enl. t. 784 (mas). - Picus flavigula Bodd. Tabl. Pl. enl. 784 (mas). - Picus chlorocephalus Gm. Syst. Nat. I. p. 432. 39.  ...  **) In der geraden Schnabelform noch von Campias weinger verschieden nähert sich diese Gruppe, deren neue Benennung wir von κραυγασος (= κραυγος, Specht) entnahmen, durch die stärker entwickelten Flügel und Füsse schon mehr den folgenden Gattungen [Chloronerpes, Chrysoptilus] mit etwas gebogenem Schnabel." (Cabanis & Heine 1863).


(syn. Picumnus Ϯ Chestnut Piculet P. cinnamomeus) Dim. < Gr. κραυγος kraugos  woodpecker; "Auch erwähnen wir am besten gleich hier die durch ihre einfarbige vorhërrschend rothbräunliche Färbung an die dreizehigen Microcolaptae erinnernde und so die Weichschwanzspechte beider Hemisphären gleichsam verbindende neotropische Gattung:   Gen. CRAUGISCUS (Diminutivform von κραυγος, Specht) Nob. - Borstenstirnchen.  Asthenurus Bp. 1854 (nec Sw. 1837); als deren Typus uns der durch seine borstenartigen fast den ganzen Vorderkopf wie eine Bürste einnehmenden Stirnfedern und die grössere Nacktheit um das Auge vor den typischen Formen der Gattung Picumnus ausgezeichnete P. cinnamomeus Licht. gilt, dem wir auf Bonaparte's Autorität hin den uns unbekannten Asthenurus rufiventris Bp. hinzufügen:  1. C. cinnamomeus Nob.   Picumnus cinnamomeus Licht. in Mus. Berol. - Wagl. Isis 1829. p. 646. 5." (Cabanis & Heine 1863).


(syn. Colaptes Ϯ Yellow-shafted Flicker C. auratus) Gr. κραυγος kraugos  woodpecker; "PICIDES  }  ...  2. Craugus B. (Picus Cuv)  3. Jynx,  4. Picus" (Billberg 1828).