Key to Scientific Names in Ornithology

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(syn. Carpodacus Ϯ Crimson-browed Finch C. subhimachalus) Gr. προ pro  close to; genus Pyrrhula Brisson 1760, bullfinch; "Fringillidæ.  ...  Propyrrhula subhemachalana, [drawing nos.] 471, 472.  P. rubeculoides, [drawing no.] 831.  P. sipahi, [drawing nos.] 320, 321." (Hodgson 1844); "Propyrrhula, Hodgson, MS.  This connecting form has the beak of a true Pyrrhula, though not quite so short as in P. vulgaris and P. erythrocephalus; while the plumage and colouring ally it to Corythus and Erythrospiza, the former being, however, a degree less firm, wherein it approximates the true Pyrrhula. It can only be arranged satisfactorily as a separate division.  P. subhemachalana; Corythus subhemachalus, Hodgson, As. Res. XIX, 152" (Blyth 1844); "Propyrrhula Hodgson, 1844, in J. E. Gray, Zool. Misc., p. 85. Type, by subsequent designation (G. R. Gray, 1855, Cat. Genera Subgenera Birds, p,. 81), Corythus subhimachalus Hodgson." (Paynter in Peters 1968, XIV, 283-284).


(syn. Pyrrhula Ϯ Brown Bullfinch P. nipalensis) Gr. πρωτο- prōto-  first, fresh; genus Pyrrhula Brisson, 1760, bullfinch; "Protopyrrhula 1)  ...  P. nipalensis  ...  1) Ptentsy P. nipalensis k' sozhaleniyu podrobno ne opisany." (Bianchi 1907) (OD per Björn Bergenholtz).


(Fringillidae; Ϯ Eurasian Bullfinch P. pyrrhula) Late Med. L. pyrrhula  Bullfinch  < Gr. πυρρουλας purrhoulas  worm-eating bird, mentioned by Aristotle, later identified as either the Robin Erithacus or the Bullfinch; "Le genre du Bouvreuil.  Genus Pyrrhulæ" (Brisson 1760): based on "Pyrrhula" and "Rubicilla" of many authors, "Rubrica" of Gessner 1555, "Fringilla sanguinea" of Schwenckfeld 1603, "Fringilla Rubecula" of Frisch 1733-1743, "Coccothraustes sanguinea" of Klein 1750, and "Loxia artubus nigris ..." of Linnaeus 1746; "Pyrrhula Brisson, 1760, Ornithologie, 1, p. 36. Type, by tautonymy, Loxia pyrrhula Linnaeus." (Paynter in Peters 1968, XIV, 293). In ornithology the combination pyrrhul- is often used for thick-billed birds, or for those with red breasts. The Eurasian Bullfinch is accused of eating cultivated fruits or nipping buds and is still persecuted in some areas.
Var. PyhrrhulaPyrhula, PhyrrulaPyrrhulas, Pirrula, Pirula, Pitalla, Purrhula.
Synon. Protopyrrhula, Pyrrhia.


Gr. πυρρουλας purrhoulas  worm-eating bird mentioned by Aristotle, since identified as either the robin Erithacus or the bullfinch; "96. LOXIA.  ...  Pyrrhula.  4. L. artubus nigris, tectricibus caudæ remigumque posticarum albis. Fn. svec. 178.  Rubicilla s. Pyrrhula. Gesn. av. 733. Aldr. orn. l. 17. c. 31. Jonst. av. . . t. 43. Will. ornith. 130. t. 43. Raj. av. 86. Alb. orn. I. t. 59. 60. Frisch. av. . . t. 2. f. 1. 2. Olin. av. 40.  Habitat in Europæ sylvis, Sorbi disseminatorMas subtus ruber, Femina subtus fusco-cinerea." (Linnaeus 1758) (Pyrrhula).


(Thraupidae; Ϯ Puerto Rican Bullfinch P. portoricensis) Portmanteau of genera Pyrrhula Brisson 1760, bullfinch, and Tanagra Linnaeus, 1766, tanager; "Pyrrhulagra, Schiff, Mus. Senkenb. (Spermophila, Pitylus, et Tanagrella, p. Gr. - Loxia, Fringilla et Tanagra Auct.).   1. LOXIA portoricensis, Daud. (gularis? Van Ernest. Pyrrhula aurantiicollis, Vieill. - P. violacea et robinsoni! Gosse, var. - Pitylus portoricensis, Gr.) Gal. Ois. t. 55. - Gosse, Ill. Jam. t. 66. mas ad. t.67. var albo-varia, ex Antillis" (Bonaparte 1850). The validity of this name must be called into question. According to Hellmayr 1938, Cat. Bds. Americas, pt. XI, p. 159, the type of Pyrrhulagra by subsequent designation (G. Gray 1855, Cat. Gen. Subgen. Bds., p. 75) is Loxia portoricensis Daudin; but Bonaparte 1850, Monog. Loxiens, p. v, writes, "avec le Dr. SCHIFF de Francfort nous appellons Pyrrhulagra un nouveau genre dont Fringilla noctis, L. est le type, et qui contient deux ou trois espèces semblables par la couleur si non par le bec." Fringilla noctis Linnaeus, 1766, is the type of Loxigilla Lesson, 1831, of which Pyrrhulagra Bonaparte, 1850, becomes a synonym. If Loxia portoricensis Daudin, 1800, is to be separated generically, it will need a new name.
Synon. Melopyrrha.


(syn. Eremopterix Ϯ Grey-backed Sparrow Lark E. verticalis) Portmanteau of genera Pyrrhula Brisson 1760, bullfinch, and Alauda Linnaeus, 1758, lark; "PYRRHULAUDA, Smith.  Bill short; the sides much compressed; the tip entire; the culmen arched; commissure straight. Nostrils concealed by the frontal feathers.  ...  leucotis. Pl. Col. 269. f. 2.    cruciger. Ib. 269. f. 1.    melanosoma. Part. 5. No. 108" (Swainson 1837).  Var. Pyrrhulalauda, Pyrrhalauda, Pyralauda.