Key to Scientific Names in Ornithology

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L. ater black; fuscus brown.


L. dorsum back; fuscus brown.


L. fuscus  dusky, black, brown. Despite its classical meaning this epithet is used in ornithology to indicate a very wide spectrum of colours from black, grey and brown to a range of dark tints including slate-blue and dusky-orange.
ex “Héron brun de Cayenne” (= ☼) of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 858, and “Héron brun” of de Buffon 1770-1786 (syn. Agamia agami).
● ex “Gobe-mouche brun de la Martinique” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 568, fig. 2 (Allenia).
● ex “Brown Sandpiper” of Pennant 1768, and Latham 1787 (syn. Calidris minuta).
● ex “Brown Tern” of Latham 1785 (syn. Chlidonias niger).
● ex “Promérops de la nouvelle Guinée” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 638, “Promérops brun à ventre rayé” of de Buffon 1770-1783, “Promérops brun de la nouvelle Guinée” of Sonnerat 1776, and “New Guinea brown Promerops” of Latham 1782 (syn. Epimachus fastuosus).
● ex “White-breasted Barbet” of Latham 1782 (Malacoptila).
● ex “Anas fera fusca” of Jonston, 1650, “Anas niger” of Willughby 1676, “Velvet-Duck” of Ray 1713, Linnaeus, 1745, and Linnaeus 1746 (Melanitta).
● ex “Martin-pêcheur de la Nouvelle Guinée” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 663 (= ♀), and “Great Brown Kingsfisher” of Latham 1782 (syn. Melidora macrorrhina).
● ex “Tangara brun d’Amérique” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 155, fig. 2 (syn. Paroaria gularis).
● ex “Coot-footed Tringa” of Edwards 1743-1751, “Phalaropus fuscus” of Brisson 1760, and “Brown Phalarope” of Pennant 1785, and Latham 1785 (syn. Phalaropus lobatus).
● ex “Brown Creeper from the South Seas” of Latham 1782 (syn. Phylidonyris undulata).
● ex “Golondrina parda” of de Azara 1802-1805, no. 301 (subsp. Progne tapera).
● ex "Figuier étranger" of d'Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 58, fig. 3 (Setophaga).
● ex “Bouveron” of de Buffon 1770-1783: “J’appelle ainsi cet oiseau ... parce qu’il me paroît faire la nuance entre les bouvreuils [bullfinches] d’Europe et les bec-ronds [seedeaters] d’Amérique” (syn. Sporophila lineola).
● ex “Barge brune” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 875 (syn. Tringa erythropus).
● ex “Rasle brun des Philippines” of Brisson 1760 (Zapornia).
● ex “Tourterelle de la Caroline” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 175 (syn. Zenaida macroura carolinensis).
● ex “Figuier brun-olive” of de Buffon 1770-1783, and “Olive-brown Warbler” of Latham 1783, and Pennant 1785 (unident.).
● ex “Gobe-mouche brun de Cayenne” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 574, fig. 1 (unident.; has been linked with Cnemotriccus fuscatus and with Contopus cinereus).


L. fuscans, fuscantis  blackish  < fuscare  to darken  < fuscus  dark.


L. fuscatus dark < fuscare to darken < fuscus dark, black.
● ex “Figuier brun du Sénégal” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 584, fig. 1, and “Dusky Warbler” of Latham 1783 (syn. Schoenicola brevirostris).


Mod. L. fuscater  blackish, dark brown, dark grey  < L. fuscus  dark; ater  black.


L. fuscatior, fuscatioris  darker  < comp. fuscatus  dark, dusky  < fuscare  to darken  < fuscus  dark, black.


L. fuscatus dark  < fuscare  to darken  < fuscus  dark, black.
● ex “Hirondelle de Mer brune” of Brisson 1760; “Linnaeus’s S. fuscata based on a young bird” (BOU 1915) (Onychoprion).


L. infuscus dusky, dark-brown, blackish.

infuscata / infuscatus

L. infuscatus  dusky  < infuscare  to make dark  < infuscus  dusky, blackish.
● ex “Curucáu Afeytado” of de Azara 1802-1805, no. 365 (Phimosus).
● ex “Perroquet à franges souci” of Levaillant 1801-1805 (syn. Poicephalus robustus).


L. luteus  saffron-yellow  < lutum  saffron; fuscus  dusky, brown.


L. niger black; fuscus dusky, brown.


L. obfuscatus or offuscatus  dark, obscure  < obfuscare or offuscare  to darken  < ob  because of; fuscare  to darken.

olivaceofusca / olivaceofuscus

Mod. L. olivaceofuscus  olivaceous-brown  < olivaceus  olivaceous  < L. oliva  olive; L. fuscus  brown.