Key to Scientific Names in Ornithology

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alboniger / albonigra

L. albus  white; niger  black.


L. cinereus  ash-coloured  < cinis, cineris  ashes; niger  black, dark (cf. Mod. L. cinereoniger  dark-grey).


(Pycnonotidae; Ϯ Western Bearded Greenbul C. barbatus) L. criniger  long-haired  < crinis  hair; -gera  -carrying  < gerere  to carry; "12. CRINON, Criniger.  (Temm.)  --  Caract. Bec court, fort, longicone, comprimé à la pointe, un peu élargi à la base; mandibule supérieure fléchie vers la pointe qui est un peu échancrée; base du bec garnie de très-fortes et longues soies  ...  Formé de cinq espèces nouvelles qui n'ont point de type parmi celles connue; toutes sont des côtes occidentales d'Afrique; plusieurs ont un bouquet de crins à la nuque" (Temminck 1820).
Synon. Cometes, Hypotrichas, Trichas, Trichophorus.
● (syn. Dicrurus Ϯ Hair-crested Drongo D. hottentottus) "14. CRINIGER SPLENDENS, T.  (Irena Puella,? Horsf.  Edolius? of Natterer.)  The bill totally dissimilar to the Drongo, with which Irena and Edolius are grouped. It is long, hooked equally in both mandibles, nostrils denuded, and more like the bill of the Chough than any other bird. The chief peculiarity of the bird is a crest, composed of long recumbent hairs, which ride from the head and fall back on the shoulders. The tail is long, slightly forked; the ends of the outer feathers turned up, in the shape of a scoop. In other respects it resembles the Drongo." (Tickell 1833). 

criniger / crinigera

L. criniger  long-haired  < crinis  hair; -gera  -carrying  < gerere  to carry.
● ex “Péristère crinigère” of Hombron & Jacquinot 1845 (Gallicolumba).


L. freniger  bridle-bearing, bridled  < frenum, freni  bridle  < frendere  to grind the teeth; -gera  -carrying  < gerere  to carry.


L. luna  moon; -gera  bearing  < gerere  to carry.


L. niger  black, dark coloured, shining black, jet black (cf. ater  dead black, dusky).
● ex “Black Vulture” of Willughby 1676, and Latham 1781, “Swarthy Vulture” of Charleton 1677, “Vultur niger” of Brisson 1760, and “Avoltojo nero” of Cetti 1776 (syn. Aegypius monachus).
● ?ex “Bouvreuil noir d’Afrique” of Brisson 1760 (Bubalornis).
● ex “Black Hawk” of A. Wilson 1812 (syn. Buteo lagopus sanctijohannis).
● ex “Barbu de Cayenne” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 206, fig. 1 (Capito).
● ex “Larus cinereus minor” of Aldrovandus 1603, “Sterna fusca” of Ray 1713, “Hirundo marina minor” of Albin 1734, and “Sterna cauda subforficata, corpore cano, capite rostroque nigro, pedibus rubris” of Linnaeus 1746 (Chlidonias).
● ex “Martinet de S. Domingue. Hirundo apus dominicensis” of Brisson 1760, and “Petit Martinet noir” of de Buffon 1770-1783 (Cypseloides).
● ex “Ibis of Bellonius” of Willughby 1676, and Ray 1713, “Ibis” of Brisson 1760, “Ibis noir” of de Buffon 1770-1783, and “Black Ibis” of Latham 1785 (syn. Geronticus calvus).
● ex “Black Snipe” of Pennant 1785, and Latham 1785 (syn. Haematopus bachmani).
● ex “Black Rail” of Latham 1785 (syn. Limnocorax flavirostris).
● “Vieillot [1817] probably referred to this species, but the brief description might equally apply to P. fuscicollis” (Ogilvie-Grant 1898) (Microcarbo).
● ex “Yellow-tufted Bee-eater” of Latham 1782 (syn. Moho nobilis).
● ex “Barbu à gorge noires” of de Buffon 1770-1783, “Barbu de l’ile de Luçon” of Sonnerat 1782, and “Black-throated Barbet” of Latham 1782 (syn. Notharchus tectus).
● ex “Mésange Noire” of Levaillant 1803, pl. 137 (Melaniparus).
● ex “Black Shrike” of Latham 1781 (Platypsaris).
● ex “Pluvian du Sénégal” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 918 (syn. Pluvianus aegyptius).
● ex "Troupiale noir de Saint-Domingue" of d'Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 534 (Quiscalus).
● ex "Icterus niger" of Brisson 1760, "Troupiale noir" of de Buffon 1770-1783, and "Black Oriole" of Latham 1782, and Pennant 1785 (syn. Quiscalus niger).
● ex “Trochilus niger” of Linnaeus 1754 (describing a melanistic form of this variable species) (Threnetes).


Niger River, West Africa.



nigerrima / nigerrimus

L. nigerrimus very black < super. niger black.
● ex “Coucal Nègre” of Levaillant 1807, pl. 222 (?syn. Centropus menbeki, ?syn. Centropus bernsteini).
● ex “Crabier noir de la Nouvelle Guinée” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 926 (syn. Egretta sacra).
● ex “Merula madagascariensis aurea” of Brisson 1760, “Merle doré de Madagascar” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 539, fig. 1, and de Buffon 1770-1783, and “Black-cheeked Thrush” of Latham 1783 (syn. Philepitta castanea).
● ex “Tangara noir d’Amérique” (= ♂) of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 179, fig. 2, “Tangara noir” of de Buffon 1770-1783, and “Gujana Tanager” of Latham 1783 (syn. Tachyphonus rufus).

perniger / pernigra

L. perniger  very black  < per-  very, all; niger  black.

pulchroniger / pulcroniger

L. pulchre  very, finely  < pulcher, pulchra  beautiful; niger  black.

rubroniger / rubronigra

L. ruber, rubra  red; niger, nigra  black.


L. rufus ruddy; niger black.