Key to Scientific Names in Ornithology

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CERATOPIPRA

(Pipridae; Ϯ Scarlet-horned Manakin C. cornuta) Gr. κερας keras, κερατος keratos  horn; genus Pipra Linnaeus, 1764, manakin; "The rear crown-feathers are elongated and protrude from the line of the head, forming two tufts that project either side of the head and curve slightly upward" (Kirwan & Green 2011); "69. CERATOPIPRA, Bp.  —  152. cornuta, Spix." (Bonaparte 1854); "Ceratopipra Bonaparte, 1854, Ateneo Italiano, 2 (11), p. 316 (= Consp. Voluc. Anisod., p. 6). Type, by monotypy, [Ceratopipra] cornuta = Pipra cornuta Spix." (Snow in Peters 1979, VIII, 269)
Var. Ceratopipo (Mod. L. pipo  manakin).

Cirrhipipra

(syn. Pipra Ϯ Wire-tailed Manakin P. filicauda) L. cirrus  bristle, hair (cf. Gr. κιρρος kirrhos  tawny, orange); genus Pipra Linnaeus, 1764, manakin; "Cirrhipipra, Bp. (Pipra, p. Gr.) Alae subelongatae, acutae; remigibus aequilatis: cauda rectricibus utrinque extimis cirrhosis.   PIPRA filicauda, Spix. (filifera, Less.) Av. Bras. II. t. 8.1. ex Bras.  ... rhachidibus rectricum quatuor in filum subtilissimum, longissimum, introrsum arcuato-flexum, nudum, elasticum, desinentibus" (Bonaparte 1850).  Var. Cirrhopipra.

MUSCIPIPRA

(Tyrannidae; Ϯ Shear-tailed Grey Tyrant M. vetula) Portmanteau of genera Muscicapa Brisson 1760, flycatcher, and Pipra Linnaeus, 1764, manakin; "X.e  Sous-genre. MUSCIPIPRA.  Bec court, faible, légèrement crochu; tarses moyens: queue un peu fourchue, médiocre; les deux rectrices médianes disposées en brins un peu élargis et ovalaires à leur extrémité.   38.º Muscicapa longipennis.  Tête cendrée; plumage noir fuligineux.  Du Brésil, à Sainte-Catherine." (Lesson 1831); "Muscipipra Lesson, 1831, Traité Ornith., p. 387 (as subgenus). Type, by monotypy, Muscicapa longipennis Lesson = Muscicapa vetula Lichtenstein." (Traylor in Peters 1979, VIII, 186).
Synon. Ictiniscus.

PIPRA

(Pipridae; Ϯ Crimson-hooded Manakin P. aureola) Specific name Parus Pipra Linnaeus, 1758  <  Gr. πιπρα pipra (also πιπρω piprō, πιπρως piprōs and πιπων pipōn) small bird mentioned by Aristotle and other authors, never properly identified, and formerly falsely linked with πιπω pipō woodpecker. Its association with the colourful Neotropical manakins seems to be arbitrary; "Manakin  ...  Pipra of Linnaeus  ...  a πιπρα, a certain bird, mentioned by Aristotle" (Pennant 1773); "Pipira:— N[ome]. commum a diversas aves da Fam. Tanagridae" (Garcia 1929) (the absence of an etymology indicates that this is a Brazilian Portuguese name, perhaps from an unknown indigenous source); “the name pipira is used indiscriminately for manakins and thraupines in Bolivia, Brazil, and Peru” (Sick 1993); "PIPRA Aureola.  PIPRA nigra, capite pectoreque coccineis, remigibus antrorsum macula alba   ...  CORPUS magnitudine Hirundinis, sed brevius, crassius.   ...  REMIGES a latere interiore, in medio, macula alba notatæ. RECTRICES æquales, immaculatæ, nigræ. ROSTRUM nigrum, breve, compressum & fere cultratum, basi tectum. Nares patulæ. UNGUES acuti, curvi.  Differt a Corvo rostri basi non setis tecta; a Monedula ore non vibrissato" (Linnaeus 1764); based on "Avicula forte Surinamens. e nigro rubroque mixta" of Petiver 1709, "Avicula mexicana de chichiltototh altera" of Seba 1734, and Parus Aureola Linnaeus, 1758; "Pipra Linnaeus, 1764, Mus. Adolphi Friderici, 2, Prodr., p. 32. Type, by subsequent designation (G. R. Gray 1840,  List Gen. Birds, p. 33), Parus aureola Linnaeus." (Snow in Peters 1979, VIII, 269).
Var. Pypra, Pigra.
Synon. Cirrhipipra, Teleonema.

pipra

● Gr. πιπρα pipra small bird, never properly identified, but here regarded as a spotted woodpecker (syn. Dendrocopos major kamtschaticus, syn. Dendrocopos minor kamtschatkensis).
● Genus Pipra Linnaeus, 1764, manakin. Lesson 1831, gave the name "Pardalote Manakin" to the Buff-throated Purpletuft, believing its generic characters to be intermediate between the pardalotes  Pardalotus and the manakins (Iodopleura) (see Iodopleura).
● Gr. πιπρα pipra small bird, never properly identified, mentioned by Aristotle and other authors; ex “Avicula toto corpore nigra, cum vitta alba” or “Cacotototl” of Seba 1735, and “Parus ater, capite supra albo” of Linnaeus 1754 (Pseudopipra).

PIPRAEIDEA

(Thraupidae; Ϯ Fawn-breasted Tanager P. melanonota) Genus Pipra Linnaeus, 1764, manakin; Gr. ειδος eidos  form, likeness; "Family Pipridæ.  PIPRAEIDEA.  Rostrum ut in genere Pipra. Alæ elongatæ, remigibus 1ma, 2da et 3tia fere æqualibus, longissimis.  Cauda mediocris, fere æqualis.  Pedes breves, subfortes; digito exteriore medio ad basin conjuncto: tarsorum squamis anterioribus divisis, lateralibus integris.  ... Type. P. cyanea.  ...  Habitat in Brasilia." (Swainson 1827); "Pipraeidea Swainson, 1827, Zool. Journ., 3, p. 173. Type, by monotypy, Pipraeidea cyanea Swainson = Tanagra melanonota Vieillot." (Storer in Peters 1970, XIII, 339).
Var. Piproidea, Pipridea, Pipracidea, Pipraeida, Piproeidea.
Synon. Rauenia, Remsenornis.

PSEUDOPIPRA

(Pipridae; Ϯ White-crowned Manakin P. pipra)  Gr. ψευδος pseudos  false; genus Pipra Linnaeus, 1764, manakin; "No genus-group name is thus available for the White-crowned Manakin, despite the now widespread agreement that it represents a monospecific genus. Consequently, we provide a new name: Pseudopipra, gen. nov.  Type species: Parus pipra Linnaeus, 1758.  ...  Etymology: from the Greek ψευδος = pseudos [falsehood], and genus Pipra Linnaeus 1764, [manakin], = the false Pipra, a name that highlights both the original confusion that surrounded the correct name for this species (see Hellmayr 1929; Zimmer 1929) and, more recently, the correct generic name.  Gender: feminine.  Monotypic.  Known species: Pseudopipra pipra (Linnaeus, 1758)" (Kirwan et al. 2016) (see Dixiphia).

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