In past, included in a much broader Emberizidae. Probably sister to Cardinalidae, with these two perhaps sister to Mitrospingidae#R#R#R#R. Family limits and internal structure extensively revised in recent years on basis of numerous genetic studies#R#R#R#R#R#R. These have led to subdivision into 15 subfamilies, as well as numerous other notable changes (as compared to HBW) including: relocation herein of Parkerthraustes and Saltator from Cardinalidae, and of Charitospiza, Coryphaspiza, Embernagra, Emberizoides, Incaspiza, Porphyrospiza, Tiaris, Euneornis, Loxipasser, Loxigilla, Melanospiza, Certhidea, Platyspiza, Pinaroloxias, Geospiza, Volatinia, Coryphospingus, Rhodospingus, Sporophila, Piezorina, Xenospingus, Poospiza, Donacospiza, Sicalis, Phrygilus, Nesospiza, Rowettia, Melanodera, Haplospiza, Acanthidops, Idiopsar, Catamenia, Lophospingus, Diuca, Gubernatrix and Paroaria from Emberizidae (=Passerellidae); and also removal of Chlorophonia and Euphonia to Fringillidae, of Rhodinocichla to Rhodinocichlidae, of Chlorospingus to Passerellidae, of Phaenicophilus to Phaenicophilidae, of Spindalis to Spindalidae, of Nesospingus to Nesospingidae, of Calyptophilus to Calyptophilidae, of Lamprospiza, Mitrospingus and Orthogonys to Mitrospingidae, and of Habia, Chlorothraupis and Piranga to Cardinalidae. Generic limits within family also extensively revised, and associated sequence of species followed herein#R.