There is growing concern over the impact of trade for pets, food, ornaments and medicines on animal populations in South-East Asia, and over the number of species being pushed towards extinction as a consequence. In particular, commercial trade, almost always for pets, represents a major threat to bird species and subspecies in Indonesia, where it is estimated to involve millions of birds annually. A recent review of the situation in Sumatra, Java, Bali and Indonesian Borneo found that 13 bird species and 14 additional subspecies are at risk of extinction there primarily as a result of the bird trade#R. The list includes up to six Critically Endangered species: Silvery Pigeon (Columba argentina), Helmeted Hornbill (Rhinoplax vigil), Yellow-crested Cockatoo (Cacatua sulphurea), Short-tailed Green Magpie (Cissa thalassina), Black-winged Myna (Acridotheres melanopterus) and Bali Myna (Leucopsar rothschildi). Several races of other species may already be extinct. This list is regarded as conservative because (1) information on some species is inadequate for trade to be identified as a threat, (2) taxonomic revision will probably increase the number of full species at risk, and (3) taxonomically undifferentiated populations were not included in the review. Most wildlife trade in Indonesia is illegal, yet enforcement is almost non-existent. It must urgently become the target of serious government attention.