maritime parts of Picardy, France.
Perhaps separable in genus Cymochorea, along with H. monorhis, H. tristrami and H. markhami#R#R. H. monorhis sometimes considered a race of present species; these two may be closest to H. homochroa. Taxonomy complex and confused, with major upheaval in recent years concerning status of birds down Pacific coast of North America; at present classification of breeders in this zone remains tentative. Situation on Guadalupe I (off NW Mexico) particularly complicated, with three distinct breeding populations possibly belonging to three different races; extensive individual variation adds to confusion. Some races have been treated as separate species; race socorroensis has been included in H. monorhis. Proposed race kaedingi (from sea near Guadalupe I) synonymized with socorroensis; traditionally recognized subspecies beali (described from SE Alaska) now generally regarded as invalid. Four subspecies currently recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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