Hitherto treated as conspecific with L. tanensis (which see). Race kobayashii (Yakushima, S of Kyushu) suggested to be valid by recent molecular study#R. Proposed race rishirensis (Rishiri Is, off NW Hokkaido) described on basis of characteristics that are age- and season-dependent, and is treated as a synonym#R. Monotypic.
S Sakhalin, S Kuril Is and Japan, including islands S of Kyushu; non-breeding SE China (NW Fujian S to Guangdong and Guangxi).
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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