Often considered conspecific with A. melanogaster and A. novaehollandiae, but (as indicated in recent morphological study#R) uniquely possesses strong and uniformly rufous neck and throat in two tones (dark above, paler below) in male (3); plumes (forming white facial stripe) elongate when in breeding condition (in melanogaster and novaehollandiae these feathers are undifferentiated) (2); plain brown secondary coverts (perhaps only seasonally) (2); narrower streaks on carpal area and wing-coverts, appearing more knife-like than tongue-like in other two taxa (ns); greenish-black gular area on breeding male (ns). Three subspecies recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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