Taxonomy complex. Races often treated as comprising two or three separate species, the plain-backed, plain-breasted “atricollis group” (three taxa), the “gabonensis group” (three taxa), and the white-spectacled, white-chinned “fuscocrissa group” (five taxa). Such treatment supported by mtDNA studies, with the second and third of those groups more closely related to each other than either is to the “atricollis group”; groups do not, however, form genetically monophyletic lineages or differ in vocalizations, breeding bill colour, or nestling mouth markings and colours#R. Treatment as a single species considered preferable (and supported by scores totalling 4–5), pending further study. Proposed races minuscula (described from upper Zambezi at Balovale, in Zambia), intermediate in plumage between fuscata and muelleri, and bradfieldi (from Okahandja, in Namibia), mostly paler than latter, are both synonymized with muelleri. Eleven subspecies recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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