Formerly considered conspecific with O. scops, but separated specifically on basis of differences in voice, plumage and size. Until recently, considered conspecific (although possibility of separation mentioned in HBW) with O. pamelae and O. socotranus (see both); and hitherto considered conspecific with O. feae (which see). Appears closely related to O. pembaensis#R. Race nivosus rather poorly differentiated, and not recognized by many authors#R. Several additional races described on basis of differences in plumage, morphology and/or size: populations from C Ethiopia to Somalia and N Kenya, from NE DRCongo and W Uganda, and from Swaziland and Eastern Cape Province (South Africa) sometimes separated as, respectively, caecus, ugandae and latipennis, but probably only colour morphs; birds described from S Sudan and NW Ethiopia (pygmaeus), E Kenya and Tanzania (graueri), Angola E to Malawi (hendersonii), E Malawi to N Mozambique (pusillus) and Namibia to NE South Africa (N KwaZulu-Natal) and S Mozambique (intermedius) poorly differentiated and seem to fall within range of variation of nominate. Two subspecies currently recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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