Taxonomic ranking has varied over past 30 years; treated as subspecies of Z. dauma in HBW when latter also united with Z. aurea, but commonly accorded species rank because of its radically different song from that of geographically adjacent Z. aurea (genetic data#R unsurprisingly lend support for this as the other samples were from Japanese Z. aurea). Vocally much closer to Z. dauma as defined here#R, and possibly conspecific with it; but differs in its clearer (less marked) pale throat (1); plainer overall head pattern with much-reduced dark patch on rear ear-coverts, usually (if not always) with bare pink postocular patch (1); more extensive buff on underparts including central belly (1); possibly reduced white in wing, including on underwing stripe (ns); considerably larger size, with much longer, deeper bill and longer wings (mean bill and wing of 4 males and 5 females respectively 32.7 mm and 163.2 vs 27.2 and 143.2 in 8 male and 6 female dauma; allow 3); somewhat divergent song, with more separated and complex notes (but n=1 for dauma; allow 2). Fuller evidence needed to confirm vocal difference, but species rank provisionally accepted here. Monotypic.
Amami-Oshima, in N Ryukyu Is.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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