Family Flamingos (Phoenicopteridae)

Least Concern

American Flamingo (Phoenicopterus ruber)


French: Flamant des Caraïbes German: Kubaflamingo Spanish: Flamenco rojo
Other common names: Caribbean Flamingo

Phoenicopterus ruber


, 1758,



Previously considered conspecific with P. roseus, but they are now generally accepted to be two distinct species. P. ruber differs in  its pinkish-red, not pinkish-white, head, neck and body plumage (4);  white-based pinkish-red vs all-pink bill (3); more black around tip of bill (1). Birds of Galapagos sometimes separated as race glyphorhynchus. Monotypic.

What do (1) and (2) mean? Learn more about the scoring system.

Caribbean and also regular year-round on coasts of Guianas S to Amapá (N Brazil); isolated population in Galapagos Is.

Descriptive notes

120–145 cm; 2100–4100 g; wingspan 140–165 cm. Much brighter-coloured than P. roseus, adult has a pinkish-red head, neck and body plumage. Female up... read more


Commonest call (both perched and in flight) is a goose-like double honk “ka-hank” or “ka-rrak”,... read more


Saline lagoons and salt pans are typically used for feeding and nesting. Nests at low altitudes, in... read more

Food and feeding

Relatively varied diet. Animal food consists of aquatic invertebrates, e.g. crustaceans (Artemia, Gammarus, copepods),... read more


Timing variable in most of tropics and subtropics. Environmental conditions, especially water depths at nesting sites, which are often... read more


Partially migratory and highly dispersive. Some southward post-breeding movement reported in... read more

Status and conservation

Not globally threatened (Least Concern). Global population currently thought to number over 200,000 birds, of which 129,000–217,000 in the Bahamas/Cuba, 40,000 in... read more

Recommended citation

del Hoyo, J., Boesman, P. & Garcia, E.F.J. (2020). American Flamingo (Phoenicopterus ruber). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. (retrieved from on 27 February 2020).